PAPER –IV – ECONOMY AND DEVELOPMENT
I. Indian Economy and Development.
1. National Income -Concepts and Measurement of National Income- Nominal and Real Income; Structure and growth of Indian economy – Sectoral trends in National Income of India
2. Poverty and Unemployment: Concepts of Poverty – Income-based Poverty , non-income Poverty- capability approach (Human Poverty Index) , Measurement of Poverty and trends in Poverty; Concepts, estimates and trends of Unemployment
3. Money and Banking: Money supply, Structure of Indian Banking and non-banking financial institutions; Reforms in Banking sector; Regulation of credit by RBI
4. Public Finance: Tax structure, Central and state taxes; Government expenditure in revenue and capital account; Public debt: composition- internal and external debt; Monetary Policy, Fiscal Policy; Union Budget: Budget Analysis.
5. Planning in Indian economy: Objectives, Priorities, Strategies, Achievements of Five Year Plans; 12 FYP – Inclusive growth ; NITI Aayog; Liberalization, Privatisation, Globalisation: Features and Implications.
II. Telangana Economy.
1. Telangana economy in Hyderabad State (Agriculture, Industry and Trade); Telangana economy in United AP (1956-2014)- Deprivation and Under development; Structure and Growth of Telangana economy: Sectoral trends in GSDP ; Per capita income; Income inequalities and Poverty.
2. Human resources: Demographic Structure and Transition , Demographic dividend , (sex ratio, fertility rate, mortality rates) ; Literacy and Occupation structure
3. Land reforms: I generation (1947-1970) and II generation land reforms (1970 onwards)- Abolition of Intermediaries : Zamindari, Jagirdari and Inamdari -Tenancy Reforms : Land ceiling ; Land alienation in Scheduled areas ; Impact of land reforms.
4. Agriculture and Allied sectors: Trends in share of crop and allied sectors in GSDP; Distribution of land holdings; Trends in Irrigation ; Problems of dry land Agriculture; Dependence on Agriculture; Cropping pattern Trends ; Trends in productivity; Agricultural Credit, Extension and Marketing; Cooperatives and Producer Companies
5. Industry and Service sectors: Industrial development; Structure and growth of industrial sector, Micro Small and Medium Enterprises (MSME) sector , Revival of sick industries; Industrial infrastructure- Power; Industrial Policy of Telangana; Structure and growth of service sector; employment trends in Industry and Service sectors; Information and Communication Technology (ICT) Policy of Telangana.
III. Development and Environmental Problems.
1. Environment vs Development: Definition of Environment , Environmentalism; Environmental Protection Policy, Environmental Policy Instruments.
2. Natural resources: Forest resources– Commercialization of forests – Forest Acts vs Forest dwellers/ users; Water: surface water and groundwater, competing demand for water – drinking, industrial and agriculture; Land resources: competing uses of land- food, feed, fuel, and fibre; Mining and Environment; Sustainability of natural resources.
3. Eco systems and Bio-diversity: Ecology and Eco-system; Food chains in Eco systems, Typology of eco system; Bio diversity and its conservation, Types of Bio diversity, threat to Bio diversity.
4. Environment pollution and solid waste management, types of solid waste, factors affecting solid waste generation, impact of solid waste, recycling and reuse.
5. Global Environment Issues: Climate Change, Global Warming and its impact, Sustainable Development.