PAPER –IV – ECONOMY AND DEVELOPMENT
I. Indian Economy and Development.
1. National Income -Concepts and Measurement of National Income- Nominal and Real Income; Structure and growth of Indian economy – Sectoral trends in National Income of India
2. Poverty and Unemployment: Concepts of Poverty – Income-based Poverty , non-income Poverty- capability approach (Human Poverty Index) , Measurement of Poverty and trends in Poverty; Concepts, estimates and trends of Unemployment
4. Public Finance: Tax structure, Central and state taxes; Government expenditure in revenue and capital account; Public debt: composition- internal and external debt; Monetary Policy, Fiscal Policy; Union Budget: Budget Analysis.
5. Planning in Indian economy: Objectives, Priorities, Strategies, Achievements of Five Year Plans; 12 FYP – Inclusive growth ; NITI Aayog; Liberalization, Privatisation, Globalisation: Features and Implications.
II. Telangana Economy.
1. Telangana economy in Hyderabad State (Agriculture, Industry and Trade); Telangana economy in United AP (1956-2014)- Deprivation and Under development; Structure and Growth of Telangana economy: Sectoral trends in GSDP ; Per capita income; Income inequalities and Poverty.
2. Human resources: Demographic Structure and Transition , Demographic dividend , (sex ratio, fertility rate, mortality rates) ; Literacy and Occupation structure
3. Land reforms: I generation (1947-1970) and II generation land reforms (1970 onwards)- Abolition of Intermediaries : Zamindari, Jagirdari and Inamdari -Tenancy Reforms : Land ceiling ; Land alienation in Scheduled areas ; Impact of land reforms.
4. Agriculture and Allied sectors: Trends in share of crop and allied sectors in GSDP; Distribution of land holdings; Trends in Irrigation ; Problems of dry land Agriculture; Dependence on Agriculture; Cropping pattern Trends ; Trends in productivity; Agricultural Credit, Extension and Marketing; Cooperatives and Producer Companies
5. Industry and Service sectors: Industrial development; Structure and growth of industrial sector, Micro Small and Medium Enterprises (MSME) sector , Revival of sick industries; Industrial infrastructure- Power; Industrial Policy of Telangana; Structure and growth of service sector; employment trends in Industry and Service sectors; Information and Communication Technology (ICT) Policy of Telangana.
III. Development and Environmental Problems.
1. Environment vs Development: Definition of Environment , Environmentalism; Environmental Protection Policy, Environmental Policy Instruments.
2. Natural resources: Forest resources– Commercialization of forests – Forest Acts vs Forest dwellers/ users; Water: surface water and groundwater, competing demand for water – drinking, industrial and agriculture; Land resources: competing uses of land- food, feed, fuel, and fibre; Mining and Environment; Sustainability of natural resources.
3. Eco systems and Bio-diversity: Ecology and Eco-system; Food chains in Eco systems, Typology of eco system; Bio diversity and its conservation, Types of Bio diversity, threat to Bio diversity.