Public Revenue-Principles and types of taxation; direct, indirect, progressive and proportional

India has a well developed taxation structure. The tax system in India is mainly a three tier system which is based between the Central, State Governments and the local government organizations. In most cases, these local bodies include the local councils and the municipalities.

According to the Constitution of India, the government has the right to levy taxes on individuals and organizations. However, the constitution states that no one has the right to levy or charge taxes except the authority of law. Whatever tax is being charged has to be backed by the law passed by the legislature or the parliament. Article 246 (SEVENTH SCHEDULE) of the Indian Constitution, distributes legislative powers including taxation, between the Parliament and the State Legislature. Schedule VII enumerates these subject matters with the use of three lists;


• List – I entailing the areas on which only the parliament is competent to makes laws, Taxes consist of direct tax or indirect tax, and may be paid in money or as its labour equivalent (often but not always unpaid labour).

• List – II entailing the areas on which only the state legislature can make laws, and

• List – III listing the areas on which both the Parliament and the State Legislature can make laws upon concurrently.

Direct Taxes: They are imposed on a person’s income, wealth, expenditure, etc. Direct Taxes charge is on person concern and burden is borne by person on whom it is imposed. Example- Income Tax.

Indirect Taxes: They are imposed on goods/ services. The Immediate liability to pay is of the manufacturer/ service provider/ seller but its burden is transferred to the ultimate consumers of such goods/ services. The burden is Inter-Paper11-New_Page_27
transferred not in form of taxes, but, as a part of the price of goods/ services. Example- Excise Duty, Customs Duty, Service Tax, Value-Added Tax (VAT), Central Sales Tax (CST).

Progressive tax is a tax in which the tax rate increases as the taxable amount increases. The term “progressive” refers to the way the tax rate progresses from low to high, with the result that a taxpayer’s average tax rate is less than the person’s marginal tax rate.

Proportional tax is a tax imposed so that the tax rate is fixed, with no change as the taxable base amount increases or decreases. The amount of the tax is in proportion to the amount subject to taxation.


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