Ajanta frescoes

Ajanta frescoes The Ajanta caves are located in the western Indian state of Maharashta, cut into the cliff face above the spot where the river Waghora draws a harmonious half-moon through lush vegetation. Discovered by English officers during a tiger hunt in 1819, the caves are in such a remote spot (the nearest towns are … Read more

Classical music and dances of India

Classical music and dances of India Indian classical music The origins of Indian classical music can be found from the oldest of scriptures, part of the Indian tradition, the Vedas. Samaveda, one of the four Vedas, describes music at length. Indian classical music has its origins as a meditation tool for attaining self realization. All … Read more

Folk arts of India

Folk arts of India Madhubani Art Madhubani, practiced in the Mithilia region of India, is a famous form of folk art. It is done with the help of natural pigments and dyes. The equipment for painting is also usually hand crafted. Geometrical figures and vibrant use of colour are the most strking features of Madhubani … Read more

Gandhian approach to rural development

Gandhian approach to rural development Gandhian approach to rural development may be labelled as ‘idealist’. It attaches supreme importance to moral values and gives primacy to moral values over material conditions. The Gandhians believe that the source of moral values in general lies in religion and Hindu scriptures like the Upanishads and the Gita, in … Read more


 Tughlaq Dynasty : Ghiyasuddin Tughlaq, , Firoz Shah Tughlaq     Tughlaq Dynasty   Third of the five dynasties that ruled Delhi, the Tughluq Dynasty was, perhaps, one of the strongest of the Delhi Sultanates.The Tughlaqs were basically of Turkish origin and the family was essentially Muslim. Around the year 1321, Ghazi Tughlaq … Read more

Monuments And Conservation

 Museums and Archives in Karnataka; Preservation and protection of historical monuments – work of Archaeological Survey of India – World Heritage Sites in Karnataka. The concept of museums in India may be traced back to the historic times, in which references to the chitrasala (picture gallery) do occur. The earliest necessity to house … Read more

Religious Sects

 Religious sects: Shankaracharya, Ramanujacharya, Madhwacharya – Sri Basaveshvara, Veerashaivism and Vachana movement  The revival and expansion of Hinduism after the Gupta period took many forms. The chief gods were the Shiva and Vishnu and many magnificent temples were built to proclaim their supremacy. The rise of the worship of Shiva and Vishnu marked … Read more

Indian Freedom Struggle 11

 POST INDEPENDENT ERA The era after India’s independence from colonial rule starts with its partition into two halves – India and Pakistan. Lord Mountbatten became the first Governor General of free India and M.A. Jinnah that of Pakistan. The transition was violent, with blood curling massacres all over the country, ample proof to … Read more

Lord Wellesley

 Lord Wellesley (1789-1805) INTRODUCTION Lord Wellesley became the Governor General of India at a time when the British were involved in a life and death struggle with France all over the world. He soon realized that the political conditions in India were favorable for the expansion of the British Empire in India. Lord … Read more

The Mughals 1

 Introduction  In the fourteenth century, the disintegration of the Mongol empire led Timur to unite Iran and Turan under one rule.  Timur’s empire was spread from the lower Volga to the river Indus, including Iran,  Asia  Minor (modern Turkey), Trans-Oxiana, Afghanistan, and some part of Punjab.    In 1404, Timur … Read more

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