Respiration Respiration is defined as the movement of oxygen from the outside environment to the cells within tissues, and the transport of carbon dioxide in the opposite direction. The physiological definition of respiration is differs from the biochemical definition, which refers to cellular respiration, a metabolic process by which an organism obtains energy … Read more

Food Safety And Microbial Standards, Food Quality Standards,

 Food safety and Microbial standards, Food quality standards Food safety-Indicators of food microbial Quality and safety-Coliforms, Enterococci, Bifidobacteria, Coliphages/Enteroviruses, predictive Microbiology/ Microbial modeling Microbial Standards of Processed and preserved Foods The Center for disease control (CDC) investigates each documented outbreak of food borne disease and attempts to determine not only the specific microorganisms … Read more

Transport Of Water And Minerals In Plants And Animals

 Transport of water and minerals in plants and animals   Transport of water in plants The survival of plants is dependent on a number of factors which include water, minerals, gases, and nutrients they receive. The movement of gas, water, and nutrients in plants are carried out in components. They take in carbon … Read more

Diseases Communicable Diseases And Epidemic Diseases

 Diseases – Communicable diseases, Endemic diseases Top 10 Causes of Death (Source: WHO World Health Statistics 2012) Ischemic heart disease 12 % Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease 11% Stroke 9% Diarrheal disease 6% Lower respiratory infections 5% Preterm birth complications 4% Tuberculosis 3% Self-inflicted injuries 3% Falls 3% Road injuries 2% Communicable diseases Communicable … Read more

Reproduction And Growth

 Reproduction and growth – type of reproduction Living things grow and they reproduce. Growth is a way to generate the materials for reproduction. Reproduction is a way to make new organisms that can grow. Thus, the apparent “goal” of every organism is to fill the available world with its offspring, that is, with … Read more

Respiratory Quotient

 Respiratory quotient: Carbohydrates, fats and protein The respiratory quotient (or RQ or respiratory coefficient), is a dimensionless number used in calculations of basal metabolic rate (BMR) when estimated from carbon dioxide production. It is calculated from the ratio of carbon dioxide produced by the body to oxygen consumed by the body. Such measurements, … Read more

Reflex Action

 Reflex action In the body of an animal two types of activities take place: voluntary and involuntary. Voluntary action happens according to the will of the individual while there is not any control of will over involuntary action. Involuntary action may again be divided into two categories. The action of first category is … Read more

Control Of Pests And Disease

 Control of Pests and Disease Agriculture is the single largest sector of India that provides the principal means of livelihood for over 58.4% of country’s population. It contributes approximately one-fifth of the total gross domestic product (GDP). Agriculture accounts for about 10% of the total export earnings and provides raw material to a … Read more

Endocrine Glands

 Endocrine glands: harmone and their function The endocrine system is made up of glands that produce and secrete hormones, chemical substances produced in the body that regulate the activity of cells or organs. These hormones regulate the body’s growth, metabolism (the physical and chemical processes of the body), and sexual development and function. … Read more

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