RAJASTHAN ; HISTORY OF CHAUHAN

Chauhan Rulers of Sambhar/Sakambhari

There are several theories about the origin of chauhans which are as follows:-

  1. Prithviraj Raso – Agnikund at Abu
  2. Prithiviraj Vijay- Suryavanshi
  3. Col. Tod- Foriegner
  4. Dr. Dashrat Sharma- Bhramins
  5. Chandravati Lekh- Bhramins

Chronology of Chauhan Rulers of Sambhar:-

  1. Ajairaj II: Prithviraj I was succeeded by his son Ajairaj II who was a famous ruler of his time. He founded Ajmer and also attacked Malava captured Sulhana and made the senapati of Parmar king Naravarman as his prisoner. He killed rulers Chachig, Sindhul and Yashoraj.Ajay Maru or Ajmer. He defeted the Muslims.
  2. Arnoraj : Ajairaj was succeeded by his son Arnoraj before 1133 AD. Jaisingh Siddhraj, Chalukya ruler, attacked Arnoraj but later he returned the kingdom of Arnoraj and married his daughter Kanchandevi with him. Arnoraj’s second wife was Sidhawa ,daughter of Marwar ruler of Avichi province. Jaisingh Siddharaj’s son also fought against Arnoraj. Arnoraj entered into a treaty with king Ballal of Ujjain and attacked Siddharaj’s son Kumarpal. Arnoraj had also conquered the king of Kushavarina and had successfully faced the attack of the Muslims. Near about 1155 A.D.

III.        Jugdeva :Arnoraj’s son Jugdeva killed his father and ascended the throne. But only after a few days his younger brother Vigraharaja IV usurped the throne from him. Kanchanadevi’s son was Someshwar and Sudhawa had three sons, whose elder son Jagdev killed Arnoraj. This murder was prior to year 1153 AD. Jagdev ruled for a short period who was dethroned by Vigraharaj IV. [23]

  1. Vigraharaj IV (1159 AD) : He ruled from 1153 to 1163 A.D. He was a powerful king and is also known as Bisaldeva. He conquered Delhi from the kings of Tomar dynasty and attacked Chalukya king Kumarpala and to avenge his father’s defeat, he destroyed the areas of Pallika and Naddul. Narhar Inscription of Vigraharaja IV of s.v. 1215 (1159 AD) tells us that Vigraharaj IV ruled over wide areas of Shekhawati.
  2. Amarangeya: After the death of Bisaldeva his son Amarangeya succeeded him as a king. But he died at an early age and was succeeded by Prithviraj II.
  3. Prithviraj II: To check the attacks of the Muslims Prithviraj II had appointed his materinal uncle Guhila Kilahana as the ruler of Punjab.

VII.       Someshwara: After the death of Prithviraj II, his uncle Someshwara succeeded him as a king. He was the son of Arnoraj and his mother Kanchandevi was a princess ofChalukya dynasty. Someshwara had extended his empire to Gwalior, Kannauj and to Hissar and Sarhind in the west.

VIII.      Prithviraj III (1166-1192 CE): He was the son of Someshwara and ascended the throne at the age of 15 years. Because of his minor age, his mother Karpuradevi looked after the administration of the state for one year. During this period Nagas, who had many small states, organized and rebelled against Chauhan dynasty. Rani Karpuri Devi sent her faithful minister Bhuwanikamal and suppressed the Nagas. Later on we do not hear about Nagas in history. [24]

  1. Prithviraja III defeated the Afghan ruler Muhammad Ghori in the First Battle of Tarain in 1191 CE. Ghori attacked for a second time next year, and Prithviraja III was defeated and slain at the Second Battle of Tarain in 1192 CE. After his defeat Delhi came under the control of Muslim rulers.

 

 

 

Chauhans of Ranthambore

The Chahamana or Chauhan dynasty of Ranastambhapura (Ranthambore) was established by Govinda-raja, a member of the Shakambhari Chahamana family (also known as the Chauhans of Ajmer).Govinda was the son of Prithviraja III, who was defeated and killed in a battle with the Delhi Sultanate, in 1192 CE. The Delhi Sultan Muhammad of Ghor appointed Govinda as his vassal at Ajmer. However, Prithviraja’s brother Hari-raja de-throned him, and himself became the ruler of AjmerGovinda then established a new kingdom with its capital at Ranastambhapura (modern Ranthambor). After the Muslim conquest of Ajmer, he granted asylum to Hari.

Balhana, the son of Govindaraja, is recorded as a vassal of the Delhi Sultan Iltumish in 1215 CE, but declared independence in the later years.Balhana’s elder son Prahlada succeeded him, and died in a lion-hunt. Prahlada’s son Viranarayana was invited to Delhi by Iltumish, but was poisoned to death there.[3] Iltumish captured the fort in 1226 CE. Balhana’s younger son Vagabhata then ascended the throne of Ranthambore. He recaptured Ranthambore during the reign of the Delhi ruler Razia (r. 1236-1240). He successfully defended the fort against the Delhi Sultanate’s invasions in 1248 and 1253 CE.

Vagbhata’s son Jaitrasimha achieved military successes against Paramaras of Malwa and other Rajput chiefs. He, however, lost his sovereignty to Nasir-ud-din, and ended up paying tribute to the Delhi Sultanate.

Hammira-Deva, the last ruler of the dynasty, was also its most powerful ruler.He is supposed to have won 16 wars and died fighting in the 17th with Allauddin Khilji.

He constructed the 32 Khamboun ki Chatri in Ranthambore.

He ascended the throne sometime between 1283 and 1289 CE. Hammira-Mahakavya, his biography by Nayachandra, is one of the few non-Muslim sources for the region’s history from that period, and enables the historians to verify the accounts of the Muslim chronicles. The Balvan inscription of 1288 CE mentions that Hammira captured the elephant force of Arjuna II, the Paramara king of Malwa.The Hammira-Mahakavyasuggests that he also defeated Arjuna’s successor Bhoja II. He also subjugated the Paramara branch of Abu. He is said to have marched to Chitrakuta (Chittor). He raided several neighbouring Rajput territories, including Medapata (Mewar) and Vardhamanpura (modern Wadhwan).Hammira’s wars with fellow Hindu Rajputs ultimately left him without any allies against the Delhi Sultanate. He successfully resisted invasions by Jalal-ud-din and Ala-ud-din’s general Ulugh Khan. But he was killed in an invasion led by Ala-ud-din Khilji in 1301.

 

 

 

 

Chauhans of Jalore

 

Kirtipala, the youngest son of Alhana, the Chahamana ruler of Nadol, was the founder of the Jalore line of Chauhans. He captured it from the Parmars in 1181 and took the clan name Songara, after the place. His son Samarsimha succeeded him in 1182.

Udayasimha was the next ruler under whom Jalore had a golden period. He was a powerful and able ruler ruling over a large area. He recaptured Nadol & Mandor from the Muslims. In 1228, Iltutmish circled Jalore but Udayasimha offered stiff resistance. He was succeeded by Chachigadeva & Samantasimha. Samantasimha was succeeded by his son Kanhadadeva.

During the reign of Kanhad Dev Songara, Jalor was attacked and destroyed in 1311 by Ala ud din Khilji, Sultan of Delhi. Kanhad Dev Songara and his son Viramdeo Songira died defending Jalore. The Muslim rulers of Palanpur State of Gujarat briefly ruled Jalor in the 16th century and it became part of the Mughal Empire. It was restored to Marwar in 1704, and remained part of the kingdom until shortly after Indian Independence in 1947

 

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