What is Animal Husbandry
Animal Husbandry is a branch of agriculture, which comprises of controlled cultivation, management, up keeping and production of domestic animals (like cattles, horses, sheeps etc.) which includes improvement in the qualities considered desirable by humans by means of breeding, genetics, behavior and qualities. Animals are domesticated, bred, maintained and raised for utility (e.g., food, leather, medicines, fur), sport, pleasure, and research.
Importance of Animal Husbandry
- It contributes to poverty elevation through increased household income.
- It is an integral part of crop farming and contributes significantly to household nutritional. Security.
- Better breeding and practices like artificial insemination provide us with better yield with the same input boosting the GDP of a country.
- Animal Husbandry also gives way out to researches and development of agriculture sustainable food practices conforming to the environment.
- Animal husbandry provides livestock production, which helps as food and various life use products. Examples of these products have been givenbelow:
Mammalian livestock can be used as a source of milk and dairy products such as yoghurt, cheese, butter, ice cream, etc.
It is the production of a useful form of dietary protein and energy.
The grazing of livestock is sometimes used as a way to control weeds and undergrowth. For example, in areas prone to wild fires, goats and sheep are set to graze on dry shrub which reduces the risk of fires.
Livestock produce a range of fibre/textiles. For example, sheep and goats produce wool and deer and sheep can make leather.
Animals such as horses, donkey and yaks can be used for mechanical energy. Prior to steam power, livestock were the only available source of non-human labour. They are still used for this purpose in many places of the world, including ploughing fields, transporting goods and military functions.
Manure can be spread on fields to increase crop yields. This is an important reason why historically, plant and animal domestication have been intimately linked. Manure is also used to make plaster for walls and floors and can be used as a fuel for fires. The blood and bones of animals are also used as fertilizer.
Some Breeds of Animals in Rajasthan-
|Cow||Rathi (Kamdhenu of Rajasthan), Gir, Tharparkar, Kankrez|
|Buffalo||Murra (Khundi), Jafravadi, Badavari,|
|Goat||Marwadi (Highest), Shekhawati, Jhakhrana (Alwari)|
|Sheep||Chokla (Marino of Inida), Nali, Jaisalmeri, Sonadi|
|Camel||Bikaneri (Highest), Nachana, Bikaneri|
|Horse||Kathiawadi, Marwadi, Malani (superior breed)|
More than 60 percent of the state’s area is desert with sparsely distributed population. Agriculture is dependent on rainfall and failure of monsoon causes severe drought and scarcity conditions. It is deficient in water (the state has only 1% of total surface water). Ground water at many places is unfit for human & livestock consumption.
After agriculture, cattle and other livestock are the most important sources of livelihood in the state, especially for the poor. In the western regions of the state, with limited farming potential, livestock provides livelihood security. Animal husbandry is a more stable source of livelihood than farming since it is less affected by failure of rains than is agriculture.
Agriculture and dairying have always been inter-dependent in the state. The cultivator depends largely on bullock power for tillage, irrigation and carting. Milk and milk products constitute the only source of animal protein for a sizable vegetarian population. Milk is also an item of cultural importance. Milk products are a integral constituent of religious ceremonies.
Department of Animal Husbandry:-
In 1958 the department was separated from the Department of Agriculture. The Animal Husbandry Department thus came in to existence in 1958, along with Sheep and Wool and Fisheries sections. In 1984 the Fisheries Department was separated from the Department of Animal Husbandry making it an independent Department.
Various livestock development programmes are aimed to increase the productivity of the animals on sound scientific methodology. The main activities and programmes of the department includes:-
- Breed improvement programme using superior germplasm
- Veterinary health care & Disease Control Programme.
- Extension Activities
Department of Fisheries:-
Rajasthan possesses a large number of water bodies, which offer potential for development of capture and culture fisheries. State has freshwater as well as saline water resources. It has about 4.23 lakh ha. fresh water area besides 30,000 ha. area as rivers and canals, 80000 ha. waterlogged and 1.80 lakh ha. Salt affected areas at full tank level. Fish culture activities were looked after by Animal Husbandry Department up to 1981, but looking to the vast water resources available for the fisheries development, a separate department of fisheries was established in 1982 with following mandate :-
- Development and conservation of Fisheries resources.
- Ensure availability of quality fish seed.
- Increase fish production
- Employment generation.
- To promote diversification of aquaculture activities.
- To earn Revenue for the State.
Rajasthan Cooperative Dairy Federation (RCDF):-
It was set up in 1977 as the implementing agency for dairy development programmes in Rajasthan is registered as a society under the Rajasthan cooperative society’s act 1965.
- To carry out activities for promoting production, procurement, processing and marketing of milk & milk products for the economic
development of animal husbandry/ farming community.
- Development & expansion of such other allied activities as may be conducive for the promotion of the dairy industry, improvement
protection of milk animals and economic betterment of those engaged in milk production.
Rajasthan livestock development board:-
With the purpose to promote Breeding & Development of all species and breeds of economic importance and to introduce, promote and adopt appropriate technology for improving all aspects of Livestock production and their productivity.
Some major objectives are :-
- To arrange, delivery of a vastly improved artificial insemination service at the farmer’s doorstep
|· To progressively bring 80 percent breed able females among cattle and buffalo under organized breeding through Artificial insemination or Natural service by high quality bulls within a period of ten years.|
|· To undertake breed improvement programmes for indigenous cattle and buffalo breeds so as to improve their genetic qualities as well as their availability.|
|· To provide quality breeding inputs in the breeding tracts of important indigenous breeds so as to prevent the breeds from deterioration and extinction.|
The government schemes mainly comprises of various acts, rules and missions. These are mainly covered in Maritime zones of India act, The veterinary council act, fisheries act, Some of the missions related to this are described below:
National Livestock Mission:-
The National Livestock Mission (NLM) has commenced from 2014-15. The Mission is designed to cover all the activities required to ensure quantitative and qualitative improvement in livestock production systems and capacity building of all stakeholders. The Mission will cover everything germane to improvement of livestock productivity and support projects and initiatives required for that purpose subject. This Mission is formulated with the objective of sustainable development of livestock sector, focusing on improving availability of quality feed and fodder. NLM is implemented in all States.
The National Programme for Bovine Breeding and Dairy Development (NPBBD):-
NPBBD has been initiated in February 2014 by merging four ongoing schemes of the Department of Animal Husbandry, Dairying and Fisheries in the dairy sector, viz., National Project for Cattle and Buffalo Breeding (NPCBB), Intensive Dairy Development Programme (IDDP), Strengthening Infrastructure for Quality & Clean Milk Production (SIQ & CMP) and Assistance to Cooperatives (A-C). This has been done with a view to integrate milk production and dairying activities in a scientific and holistic manner, so as to attain higher levels of milk production and productivity, to meet the increasing demand for milk in the country. The Scheme has two components –
(a) National Programme for Bovine Breeding (NPBB) and
(b) National Programme for Dairy Development (NPDD).
Rashtriya Krishi Vikas Yojana (RKVV):-
It was started in 2008-09 by central government as fully financed by centre. From 2015-16, the funding pattern changed to 50:50 between state and centre.
The following work to be done in the scheme:-
- Free Livestock Medicine scheme
- Mobile Livestock health unit
- Strengthen the Multipurpose veterinary hospitals.
- Cold chain Maintenance scheme.
Bhamashah Livestock Insurance Scheme:-
Being implemented by Rajasthan Livestock Development Board through United India Insurance Company, it aims to make cattle raisers economically strong. The policy covers cow, bull, buffalo, male-buffalo calf, camel, horse, goat, sheep, donkey and pig for years ranging from one and three.
The price of the cattle will be decided by the veterinary officer and the insurance company representative along with the cattle raiser. Cattle raisers of SC/ST/BPL category need deposit just 30% of the premium amount; the rest is for the government to bear. The general category requires 50% deposit of the insurance premium.
The death of the cattle needs to be informed to the insurance firm in person or through phone calls, email or SMS. The company, using the Bhamashah platform, will directly credit the 100% claim amount in cattle raiser’s account,
Operation Flood, the world’s largest integrated dairy development program, attempted to establish linkages between rural milk producers and urban consumers by organizing farmer-owned and -managed dairy cooperative societies. In the early 1990s, the program was in its third phase and was receiving financial assistance from the World Bank and commodity assistance from the European Economic Community. At that time, India had more than 64,000 dairy cooperative societies, with close to 7.7 million members. These cooperatives established a daily processing capacity of 15.5 million liters of whole milk and 727 tons of milk powder.
Gaushala Development Programme:-
Under the Rajasthan Goshala Act 1960 till now 1163 Goshalas has been registered. These Goshalas have been established by the public trusts for maintaining old, infirm, unproductive cows and its progeny. Goshalas may be used for preservation & conservation of indigenous breeds. The central government as well as state government is also assisting these Goshalas for cattle development.
Animal Husbandry is not only a subsidiary occupation to agriculture but it is a major economic activity, especially in the arid and semi-arid regions of the Rajasthan. Livestock sector development has a significant beneficial impact in generating employment and reducing poverty in rural areas. Livestock provides other benefits to the rural sector. Livestock supplies a large portion of draft power for agriculture.
Animal husbandry contributes over 9% to the gross domestic product. Rajasthan with the highest livestock population in India contributes nearly 35% of wool production and 9% of all milk production in the country.
Animal Husbandry contributes about 8% in the G.D.P. of the State . This sector has a great potential for rural self-employment at lowest possible investment per unit. Therefore, livestock development is a critical pathway to rural prosperity.
More than 80% rural families keep livestock in their households. Contribution of animal husbandry sector to the GDP of the State has been estimated to be around 9.16 %. About 35% of the income to small and marginal farmers comes from dairy and animal husbandry. In arid areas the contribution is as high as 50%. The sector has potential to create employment in rural areas with least investments as compared to other sectors.
As per the 19th livestock census of 2012 :-
- There are 32lacs animals(which include Cattle, buffalo, Sheep, Goat, Horse & Ponies, Mules, Donkeys, Camel, Pig) and over 80.24lacs Poultry in the State.
- Rajasthan has about only 7% of the country’s cattle population and contributes about 11% of the total milk production, 30% of the mutton and 31% wool produced in the country. Rajasthan is first in Wool production while Second in milk production.
- As a % of total livestock population Goat has highest 37 % and camel is decreasing and among the lowest for last 10 years.
- Total livestock census 57732204; Barmer has highest 5366732
and in Livestock density per sq km, Dausa and Rajasmand have 192 (Highest)
- Sheep and camel has the highest negative % change While horses and mules and highest positive % change in last 10 years.
How an Alternate source of Income
Animal Husbandry sectors have been playing vital role in providing the alternate source of income in Indian economy. By helping earn farmers through livestock raising, mixed farming and dairy development, animal husbandry enhances the socio-economic status of the people. These sectors supplement family incomes and generate gainful livelihood in the rural sector, particularly, among the landless labourers, small and marginal farmers and women. The assertion of Animal husbandry acting as an alternate source of income can be evident from following points:
- These act as the best insurance against the vagaries of nature like drought, famine and other natural calamities.
- Animal husbandry sector acts as a huge source of employment generation. The total employment in Animal Husbandry and Fisheries is around 5.80%.
- It supplements the income of farmers and labourers by selling milk and meat, though in small amount, but round the year.
- Livestock raising and livestock ranching acts as the backward as well as forward linkages of the agriculture, multiplying the prospects of income.
Strengths of Animal Husbandry Sector in Rajasthan
Rajasthan is now the largest State of the country with geographical area of 3.42 lac sq. km. About 55% of the total area of the State is under Thar Desert. Animal husbandry comes to the rescue as a measure to alleviate effects of frequent droughts and has proved to be a saviour by providing sustainable year-round income to the farmers.
The sector provides:
- consistent growth rate of over 6% per annum,
- Round the year employment opportunity with more than 50% of total house hold income in arid region as against national average of 22.5%,
- Highly equitable distribution,
- An adaptive and technologically simple vocation.
Strengths of the sector in the State are:
PPP in veterinary education-First State to have veterinary colleges and Para-vet institutions in private sector,
- Ranks 1st in the country to produce around 3000 Veterinarians and Para-vets per annum.
- Produces 10% milk, 35% wool and 10% meat of the country,
- Ranks 1st in wool production,
- Ranks 1st in sale of live meat animals (goat, sheep & buffalo) to the tune of about 40,000 heads per day,
- Ranks 1st in producing around 12% of its milk from goats,
- Ranks 1st in producing more than 93% of cow milk from indigenous cows,
- Ranks 2nd in total milk produced from indigenous cows,
- Ranks 2nd in per capita availability of milk ,
- Ranks 2nd in milk production in the country,
- Ranks 14th in egg production,
- Women empowering as livestock is predominantly managed by them,
- More than 80% rural households keep animals which continue to provide subsistence income during scarcity,
- Labor intensive vocation and therefore, a major source of Rural self employment.
- Unorganized sector
- Holdings are very small.
- Predominantly owned by ESWS.
- Inadequate investment by State/ private sector.
- Inadequate extension activity.
- Animal Husbandry for livelihood.
- Unorganized markets
- Inadequate availability of Good Germ Plasm
- Large number of non-descript bulls.
- Large number of low producing Cattle & Buffalo
- Large number of Infertile Animals.
- Low A. I. Coverage.
- Free grazing
- Inadequate door-step delivery of services.
- Low conception rate
- Trust on natural service.
- Long dry periods/ late maturity.
- Health, Nutrition & Natural calamities
- Low veterinary health coverage
- Inadequate fodder & feed resources
- Natural Calamities- Frequent severe droughts
- Inadequate infrastructure
- At present the cooperative sector has installed capacity of handling 15.5 lac kgs. per day of milk and 60 MT per day capacity of powder manufacturing. In order to realize the aim of procurement, processing and marketing of 50 lac kgs. of milk per day by the year 2020, adequate investment in infrastructure shall be required.
- The milk yield of cattle & buffalo is less in Rajasthan and Cattle feed is an important input in improving the yield. The present capacity of 600 MT per day of cattle feed in co-operative sector is far below the requirement which needs to be increased manifold to bridge the nutritional gap for achieving the higher levels of production of milk planned.
Every Year Government of Rajasthan Organizes 10 State level animal fairs to provide fair price to animal men, apart from this, to provide better benefits to animal men, 250 fairs in a year also organized at Tahsil and panchayat level.
There are 10 such fairs in the state, the list of which is as follows:
|S.No||Name of the Cattle Fair||District||Month of Conduction||As Per Hindi Tithi|
|1||Shri Ram Dev Pashu Mela||Nagore||January – February||Magha Shukla 1 to Magha Shukla 15|
|2||Shri Mahashivratri Pashu Mela||Karauli||February||Magha Shukla 15 to Phalgun Krishna 7|
|3||Shri Malli Nath Pashu Mela, Tilwada||Barmer||March – April||Chaitra Krishan 11 to Chaitra Shukla 11|
|4||Shri Baldev Pashu Mela, Merta City||Nagore||March – April||Chaitra Shukla 1 to Chaitra Shukla 15|
|5||Shri Gomti Sagar Pashu Mela, Jhalrapattan||Jhalawar||May||Baisakh Shukla 13 to Jyaistha Krishna 5|
|6||Shri Veer Tejaji Pashu Mela, Parbatsar||Kuchaman City||August||Savan Shukla 15 to Bhadra krishna 15|
|7||Shri Gogamedi Pashu Mela||Hanumangarh||August – September||Savan Shukla 15 to Bhadon Shukla 15|
|8||Shri Jaswant Pradarshni & Pashu Mela||Bharatpur||September – October||Ashwin Shukla 5 to Ashwin Shukla 14.|
|9||Shri Kartik Pashu Mela, Pushkar||Ajmer||November||Kartik Shukla 8 to Mangsir Krishna 2|
|10||Shri Chandrabhaga Pashu Mela, Jhalarapatan||Jhalawar||November – December||Kartik Shukla 11 to Mangsir Krishna 5|
Objectives of Animal Fairs:-
- To provide better marketing facility to animal men for buying- selling of To attract attention their animals.
- of animal men for making their animals more prosperous and growing.
- For publicity of the government new schemes about Livestock development.
- To provide the new scientific knowledge through exhibitions by the institutions at government and non government level.
- To motivate the animal men to keep the animals healthy and strong by organizing animal competitions and races.
Other important Practices
Migration of sheep is a regular feature of sheep rearing in the western parts of Rajasthan. Sheep from southern parts of Jodhpur-Jaisalmer pass through Bali, Abu-road through Palanpur, reach up to river beds in Baroda, and Surat where they spend about two months. Similarly sheep from northern parts of these regions go through Sawai Madhopur or Hindaun to river bank in Mathura. Usually, the farmers set out on their journey in winter and return to their homes in early monsoon.
In Churu, Jhunjhunu and Sikar districts the flocks are relatively stable and they migrate for short period from their home village to grazing areas in neighboring villages when the local pastures are exhausted.
Balanced feeding is essential to fully exploit the genetic potential of livestock. In the State, fodder production is still deemed ancillary to agricultural production. Crop residues mainly sorghum, maize, Wheat and Bajra straws that are poor in nutritive value constitute the major fodder for livestock.
Recently in News
- Hingonia Gaushala issue
More than 500 cows died at Hingonia cow rehabilitation centre in the past two weeks amid a strike by its workers demanding payment of pending wages.
Causes of the mass deaths:
- Mismanagement and improper use of funds.
- Malnourishment and poor Medicare.
- Bad Fodder and polyethylene consumption.
- Unhygienic and Careless work culture.
Improvements and Solutions:
- Function as centers for cattle improvement and hubs for show casing of advanced husbandry practices;
- Provide home to destitute animals;
- Develop as a centre for milk production;
- Promote production of ‘Go Mutra’ Based Insecticides and organic manure (natural manure and vermicompost);
- Ensuring up gradation of stock through selective breeding;
- Ensuring hygienic disposal of dung and urine by promoting drainage system, dung/compost pits and Bio Gas plants;
- Ensuring sustainable fodder production through silvi pasture development. Fodder tree plantation and green fodder crop cultivation as per availability of water for irrigation.
- Global Rajasthan Agritech Meet (GRAM)
The Government of Rajasthan is committed to developing agriculture and allied ecosystem to increase farm incomes in the state. The state has conceived Global Rajasthan Agritech Meet 2016 (GRAM 2016), an agri-technology and business event as a platform to transform and catalyse the process of improving the sustainability and economic viability of agriculture and allied activities shaping globalized, market-driven and profitable ventures.
The event will bring together all stakeholders – farmers, academicians, technologists, agribusiness companies and policy makers – to accelerate development of sustainable agricultural and allied activities through innovative methods and best practices. Opportunities for entrepreneurship and partnership in these sectors will also be showcased at this platform.
- Some Initiatives
- One of the initiatives of the Department of Animal Husbandry has been the development of high producing strains of layer stock in the state.
- Pratap Dhan, a new breed of poultry has been developed in Rajasthan. It produces 4 times the eggs of the indigenous breeds. Kadaknath is another popular indigenous breed.
Animal Husbandry – A Final Analysis
Needs and Challenges
- With increasing population, persistent rise in food inflation, unfortunate rise in farmer’s suicide and majority of the Indian population having agriculture as the primary occupation, the practice of animal husbandry is no more a choice, but a need in contemporary scenario.
- Its successful, sustainable and skilful implementation will go a long way in ameliorating the socio-economic condition of lower strata of our society.
- Linking the animal husbandry with food processing industry, agriculture, researches & patents has all the possible potential to make India a nutritional power house of the world.
- Animal husbandry is the imperative hope, definite desire and urgent panacea for the State.
- Improving productivity in a huge population of low-producing animals is one of the major challenges.
- The sector will also come under significant adjustment pressure to theemerging market forces. Though globalization will create avenues for increased participation in international trade, stringent food safety and quality norms would be required.
- Access to markets is critical to speed up commercialization of livestock production. Lack of access to markets may act as a disincentive to farmers to adopt improved technologies and quality inputs. Except for poultry products and to some extent for milk, markets for livestock and livestock products are underdeveloped, irregular, uncertain and lack transparency.
Way ahead and improvements.
- Technological innovations:
- Encourage use of animal power in agriculture by providing farmers with low cost animal-drawn machines and equipments.
- Promote technology packages for organic farming developed locally by farmers and organizations.
- Enhance capability of the poor producers through technical & technological information and skills to improve their competitiveness vis-à-vis large commercial producers, and finally to improve their scale of production so as to enable them to increase household income.
- Ensuring quality of livestock products
Need based promotion of quality livestock products for balanced growth of livestock.
- Promoting small animal farming
The sustainable food and nutrition security shall give higher priority to small animals and poultry in food security programmes. The sheep, goat, pigs and backyard poultry are a viable option for improving rural incomes and reducing poverty.
- Pro-poor, pro-women and pro-youth face:
Rajasthan Government requires schemes that have a pro-poor, pro-women and pro-youth focus for attaining enhanced growth to generate more house hold income, increased production and induction of new technologies to meet future demands of livestock products.
- New employment opportunities:
The Government should generate new employment opportunities both in public and private sector. There shall be substantial increase in self-employment amongst rural youth by making the sector more remunerative. The policy aims at strengthening of Animal Husbandry related formal, non-formal and vocational education programmes to educate rural youth including women.
- Establishing effective linkages:
The Government shall develop a working mechanism to establish effective linkages among experts, scientists, State departmental authorities, industries, NGOs, Cooperatives, Banks and farmers.
The number-driven growth in livestock production may not sustain in the long run due to its increasing stress on the limited
natural resources. The future growth has to come from improvements in technology and service delivery systems leading to accelerated productivity, processing and marketing.
- Capacity building through:
- New programmes for increasing livestock production shall be formulated to ensure increased income, balanced family diets and employment generation in rural and peri-urban areas.
- Programmes shall be formulated to enhance contribution of livestock sector to reduce poverty and benefit women and underprivileged sections. With technical, material and knowledge support, the poor shall be empowered to bring about positive changes in their livelihood.
- Infrastructure Development:
- The Government shall strengthen the existing infrastructure of Veterinary institutions, laboratories, B.P lab, diagnostic centers, education & training, animal and poultry farms etc…
- The Government shall re-organize delivery system of input services like treatment facilities, AI centers, diagnostic laboratories, mobile services, camps etc…
- Promote and support participatory bodies such as Self Help Groups, Producers Cooperatives, Breeding associations, Village Committees, Voluntary organizations etc., with emphasis on women participation through whom extension support, knowledge, technologies, skills including inputs can be made accessible.
- Research & Development:
R & D programmes in various specialized subjects/ topics will be encouraged through veterinary university, other Governmental and Non Governmental organizations. Effort will be made to find out appropriate solutions for emerging problems relating to diseases, breed improvement, management, extension and marketing.
- Mobilization of additional Resources:
Ongoing programmes of GOI and State Government will be sourced to fund the schemes / activities to be under taken in pursuance of various thrust areas of the state. NABARD, co-operatives and other financial institutions will also be approached for providing funds for the new activities and schemes.
- Restructuring and revising ongoing programmes:
The Government shall review ongoing programmes, in order to restructure them in accordance with the objectives of better livestock output.
- Impact assessment:
The Government shall form a task force for regular assessment of implementation of this policy to periodically suggest the GOR for taking appropriate steps to achieve the envisaged targets and objectives.TSPSC Notes brings Prelims and Mains programs for TSPSC Prelims and TSPSC Mains Exam preparation. Various Programs initiated by TSPSC Notes are as follows:-
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