Apiculture Apiculture is the science of beekeeping. Humans have collected honey from wild bee hives for more than 8,000 years, as shown in Mesolithic rock paintings dating from 6000 B. C. E. By 2500 B. C. E. , Egyptians were keeping bees in artificial hives. Hives exploit the honeybees’ natural tendency to build nests in … Read more

Grading and Standardization of Agricultural Products

Grading and Standardization of Agricultural Products Standardization and grading are the first steps in the value-chains of an agricultural produce as it travels in a market channel to the consumer. Price of a produce has to be commensurate with quality, the assessment of which depends on a responsive system of grading and standardization. Hence, it … Read more

Water use efficiency in relation to crop production

Water use efficiency in relation to crop production Land and water scarcity are major constraints to the production of food required to meet the quantitative and qualitative shifts of the world’s demand in the mid-twenty-first century. Whereas land and water availability are constrained on a global scale, there are important regional and crop-specific differences that … Read more

Trends in Food production and consumption in India

Trends in Food production and consumption in India Production trends Agriculture, with its allied sectors, is the largest source of livelihoods in India. 70 percent of its rural households still depend primarily on agriculture for their livelihood, with 82 percent of farmers being small and marginal. In 2017-18, total food grain production was estimated at … Read more

National Agricultural Research System

National Agricultural Research System India has built up a fairly advanced agricultural research system. The Indian NARS is one of the largest systems in the world. The effective functioning of this system, in close association with education and extension systems, has greatly contributed to the rapid growth of agriculture after independence. After independence, the research … Read more


 Fertilizers All plants need certain mineral nutrients to survive. These minerals occur naturally in the soil and are taken up from the soil by the roots of the plants. Most soils usually have enough of these minerals to keep plants healthy. However, some nutrients are gradually used up by the plants, or are … Read more

Alternative Policy Initiatives In Agricultural Marketing

 Alternative policy initiatives in agricultural marketing More than three-fifths of India’s population draws their livelihood from agriculture that adds just one-fifth to its GDP. There should be obvious serious concerns about efficient functioning of this sector both in terms of its output / productivity and its marketing. While output and productivity are supply … Read more

Cost Benefit And Investment Analysis Of Agricultural Enterprises

 Cost benefit and investment analysis of agricultural enterprises Water Resource Development A capital intensive project. To reap the benefit of irrigation the farmer should not ignore the supporting services as extension, marketing, credit and transportation both for handling crop produced and supply of inputs needed. The economic analysis must take full account of … Read more

Agricultural Strategy And Agricultural Policy

 Agricultural Strategy and Agricultural Policy Main Issues In national priority setting, the following recurring and emerging issues for sustainable agricultural development and poverty alleviation must be considered: Population pressure and demographic transition; Resource base degradation and water scarcity; Investment in agriculture, structural adjustment and impact on the poor;  Globalization and implication on the … Read more

Control Of Pests And Disease

 Control of Pests and crop Disease Agriculture is the single largest sector of India that provides the principal means of livelihood for over 58.4% of country’s population. It contributes approximately one-fifth of the total gross domestic product (GDP). Agriculture accounts for about 10% of the total export earnings and provides raw material to … Read more

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