solid state

Solid State

solid state is a compact state of matter. The solids are distinguished from a liquid or gas in terms of their rigidity which makes them occupy definite volume and have a well defined shape. In solid state, the constituent particles are in close contact and have strong forces of attraction between them.

Solids can be pure substances or mixtures, crystalline or amorphous. A crystalline solid is one in which atoms are arranged in a regular way. There is long range order extending over the entire crystal, which can therefore be described as being composed of atomic/molecular?level building blocks that repeat. The atomic?level order in a crystalline solid is often reflected in the well?defined faces of the crystal, but many crystalline solids exist as fused polycrystalline masses in which the order is not readily apparent at the macroscopic level. Examples of pure substances that are crystalline solids at room temperature and pressure are iron metal, diamond, and table salt (NaCl) and sugar (C12H22O11). In amorphous solids atoms are positioned in an irregular manor and the solids lack long range order. Many important solid materials are amorphous such as synthetic fibers, plastics, and glasses, but pure solid substances such as elemental phosphorus or sulfur may also exist in amorphous forms.

Solids can be broadly classified into following two types,

(i) Crystalline solids/True solids,

(ii) Amorphous solids/Pseudo solids

Crystalline solids

Amorphous solids

They have long range order.

They have short range order.

They have definite melting point

Not have definite melting point

They have a definite heat of fusion

Not have definite heat of fusion

They are rigid and incompressible

Not be compressed to any appreciable extent

They are given cleavage i.e. they break into two pieces with plane surfaces

They are given irregular cleavage i.e. they break into two pieces with irregular surface

They are anisotropic because of these substances show different property in different direction

They are isotropic because of these substances show same property in all directions

There is a sudden change in volume when it melts.

There is no sudden change in volume on melting.

These possess symmetry

Not possess any symmetry.

These possess interfacial angles.

Not possess interfacial angles.

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