The Freedom Struggle & Indian National Movement- its various stages and important contributors and contributions from different parts of the country


  • Indian national movement: One of the biggest. Inspired many others.
  • Gandhian Political Strategy very important.
  • Elements of Gandhian Strategy can be seen in the Solidarity Movement in Poland by Lech Walesa


  1.  Revolt of 1857
  3. Peasant Uprisings
  4. Rise of Indian National Movement
  5. Indian National Congress
  6. Moderate phase:early nationalists,Freedom of Press and Bal Gangadhar Tilak
  7. Reasons for the growth of militant nationalism (this is different from revolutionary terrorism)
  8. Revolutionary Terrorism
  9. Partition of Bengal and The Swadeshi Movement
  10. The Split in the Congress: Surat 1907
  11. Morley-Minto Reforms, 1909 and Growth of Communalism
  12. Muslim League and hindu communalism
  13. World War I and Gadar movement
  14. The Home Rule Movement
  15. Lucknow Pact (1916),Montagu-Chelmsford Reforms and Rowlatt Act
  16. Gandhi’s early career and activism
  17. Non Co-operation and Khilafat Movement
  18. Struggles for Gurudwara Reform and Temple Entry
  19. The years of Stagnation and Emergence of socialism
  20. Simon Commission (1927),Civil Disobedience Movement,August Offer wavell plan and CR Formula


  • In the Indian national movement, the Gramscian perspective of war of position was successfully practiced.
  • It provides the only historical example of a semi-democratic or democratic type of political structure being successfully replaced or transformed.
  • State power was not seized in a moment of revolution, but through prolonged popular struggle on moral, political and ideological reserves.
  • It is also an example of how the constitutional space offered by the existing structure could be used without getting coopted by it.
  • Diverse perspectives and ideologies


  • The path that India has followed since 1947 has deep roots in the struggle for independence.


  • Values and modern ideals on which it was based
  • Vision of the leaders: democratic, civil libertarian and secular India, based on a self-reliant, egalitarian social order and an independent foreign policy
  • The movement popularized democratic ideas and institutions in India
  • The strong civil libertarian and democratic tradition of the national movement was reflected in the constitution of independent India.
  • Pro-poor orientation
  • Secular
  • A non-racist, anti-imperialist outlook which continues to characterize Indian foreign policy was the part of the legacy of the anti-imperialist struggle.
  • India’s freedom struggle was basically the result of fundamental contradiction between the interests of the Indian people and that of British colonialism.

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