Telangana People’s Armed Struggle
Ittehadul Muslimeen and razakars
The party has roots back to the days of the princely State of Hyderabad. It was founded and shaped by Nawab Mahmood Nawaz Khan Qiledar of Hyderabad State with the “advice” of Nawab Mir Osman Ali Khan, the Nizam of Hyderabad and in the presence of Ulma-e-Mashaeqeen in 1927 as a pro-Nizam party. Then it was only Majlis-e-Ittehadul Muslimeen (MIM) and the first meeting was held in the house of Nawab Mahmood Nawaz Khan on November 12, 1927. The MIM advocated the set up of a “Muslim dominion” rather than integration with India. In 1938, Bahadur Yar Jung was elected “president” of the MIM which had a “cultural” and religious manifesto. It soon acquired political complexion and, alongside the Muslim League, were collaborators of British-occupied India forces. After the death of Bahadur Yar Jang in 1944, Qasim Rizvi was elected as the leader.
The Razakars, led by Kasim Razvi, were a Islamist , paramilitary organization of self-styled “volunteers” formed, ostensibly, to “resist merger” with India. The Razakars operated as “storm troopers” for the MIM. The 150,000 Razakar “soldiers”, supposedly “mobilized” to “fight against the Indian Union” for the “independence” of Hyderabad State, were in reality responsible for large-scale pogroms against the state’s Hindu majority of unarmed and poor peasants. After the Indian annexation of Hyderabad State, the MIM was banned in 1948. Qasim Rizvi was jailed from 1948 to 1957, and was released on the condition that he would go to Pakistan where he was granted an asylum. Before leaving, Qasim Rizvi handed over the responsibility of whatever remained of the Ittehadul Muslimeen, to Abdul Wahid Owaisi, a lawyer. Abdul Wahed Owaisi restructured the Party and Organised it into All India Majlis-e-Ittehadul Muslimeen. After Abdul Wahed Owaisi, his son Sultan Salahuddin Owaisi took control of AIMIM in 1975 and was referred to as Salar E Millat (commander of the community).
In 1960, AIMIM won the Mallepally ward of Hyderabad Municipal Corporation. In 1962, Salahuddin won from Patharghatti assembly seat as an Independent candidate and later from Charminar constituency in 1967. In 1972, he won from Yakutpura and later in 1978, again from Charminar.
In 1984 AIMIM emerged victorious in the Hyderabad Lok Sabha Seat and Sultan Salahuddin Owaisi represented Hyderabad till 2004. Since then, Salahuddin’s elder son Asaduddin Owaisi represents the seat of Hyderabad. Mohammad Majid Hussain of the AIMIM was unanimously elected as the Mayor of Greater Hyderabad on January 2, 2012. AIMIM was once reduced to one Assembly seat in Andhra Pradesh in 1994. On 12 November 2012, Asaduddin Owaisi announced the withdrawal of support to the UPA government citing communal policies of the current congress led government. All India Majlis-e-Ittehadul Muslimeen was then supporting Congress, both at Centre and at state level in Andhra Pradesh.
End of Nizam’s Rule
Nizam was the title of the native sovereigns of Hyderabad State, India, since 1719. They belonged to the Asaf Jah dynasty. The dynasty was founded by Mir Qamar-ud-Din Siddiqi, a viceroy of the Deccan under the Mughal emperors from 1713 to 1721. After Aurangzeb’s death in 1707, the Mughal Empire fell apart and the viceroy in Hyderabad said he was independent. From 1798 Hyderabad was one of the princely states of British India, but it kept local control. Seven Nizams ruled Hyderabad for two centuries until Indian independence in 1947. The Asaf Jahi rulers used money to support free Education, literature, architecture, art, culture and cuisine. The Nizams ruled the state until September 1948 after independence from the British.
After the British left India in 1947, the princely state of Hyderabad did not join either of the new dominions of India or Pakistan. But later he decided to merge with pakistan. Sardar Patel sent representations to the Nizam to join India as Hyderabad’s majority citizens wanted to join India, but the Nizam refused. The Indian army entered Hyderabad from four sides defeated Hyderabad Nizams army and the independent razakaars. The Nizam’s rule ended on 17 September 1948. His soldiers surrendered to Indian govt. All Nizams are buried in the royal graves at the Makkah Masjid near Charminar in Hyderabad. Only the last Nizam, Mir Osman Ali Khan is buried in a different place. His mausoleum is in the Judi Mosque facing King Kothi Palace.
Integration of Hyderabad State in Indian Union
Hyderabad similar to Kashmir and Junagadh posed complexity in accession to the Indian Union after Independence. The seventh Nizam of Hyderabad, Mir Osman Ali Khan, was perpetual in its stance to neither accede to India or Pakistan. Hyderabad having its own army, railway, airline network, postal system and radio network only fostered his thought of having an independent autonomous state. On the Day of Independence, i.e. 15th August, 1947, the Nizam declared Hyderabad an Independent Nation.
Hyderabad had a majority Hindu population with the minority Muslims controlling the administrative and political affairs of the state. The military of Hyderabad was some 24000 strong. Besides, Hyderabad also had ‘Razakars’, some 200000 strong paramilitary force recruited from among the Muslim aristocrats and controlled by the civilian leader Qasim Razvi.
Negotiations between the then Home Minister of India Sardar Patel and the Nizam resulted in no solution. Nizam tried unsuccessfully to get the British to intervene, he even lodged a complaint with the UN but to no avail. (It was withdrawn by the Nizam after Hyderabad’s accession to India, but was kept alive by UN for another 50 years.). After unsuccessful negotiations, Nehru agreed to a ‘standstill agreement’. Status quo was maintained with the Hyderabad state giving the guarantee that it would not accede to Pakistan and the Indian Union giving the guarantee to not use military force against the state for one year.
The eventualities of the next 13 months would pave the way for the ensuing military action of the Indian government to annex Hyderabad into Indian Union. There were reports from the ground that the Nizam’s irregular force ‘The Razakars’ were committing atrocities on the innocent civilians. There were retaliatory measures which resulted in the state and the neighbouring villages in the Indian territory boiling up in communal flames. At this juncture of time, Nehru and Patel decided to intervene and send in military forces to Merge Hyderabad into the Indian Union.
Operation Polo referred to as ‘Police Action’ was the 5-day long military action that the Indian Union took against the state of Hyderabad. The battle between India and Hyderabad began on 13th September 1948 and ended on 18th September 1948. The Indian forces heavily outnumbered the Nizam’s forces. After the 5th day, the Nizam’s army surrendered to the Indian Army and Hyderabad became a part of the Union of India.
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