Formation of Popular Ministry under Burgula Ramakrishna Rao and 1952 Mulki-Agitation


Burgula Ramakrishna Rao


  • After the Annexation of Hyderabad State into India, M. K. Vellodi was appointed the Chief Minister of the state on 26 January 1950. He was a Senior Civil servant in the Government of India. He administered the state with the help of bureaucrats from Madras state and Bombay state.
  • The 7th Nizam – Mir Osman Ali Khan was given the ceremonial position of “Raj Pramukh” or “Governor”.
  • In the first State Assembly election in India, 1952, Dr. Burgula Ramakrishna Rao was elected Chief minister of Hyderabad State.
  • Burgula Ramakrishna Rao, who was secretary of the “Hyderabad Social Conference,” as well as a member of the “Hyderabad Reform Committee” and the “Hyderabad Political Conference,” was elected an executive member of the State Congress in 1938 and secretary of the People’s Convention in 1937. For three years, he was also the President of the Andhra Pradesh Congress. Rao, a multilingual man, was the first elected Chief Minister of Hyderabad State, serving from March 6, 1952, to October 31, 1956.
  • Burgula Ramakrishna Rao, the great freedom fighter and the first elected Chief Minister of Hyderabad, was a man who stood up and fought against the Nizam of Hyderabad’s dictatorship and injustice. Not only that, but he fought the Nizam under the leadership of Swami Ramanand Teerth and many other leaders, and he was instrumental in bringing Hyderabad into the independent India.
  • Hyderabad State was made up of sixteen districts, grouped into four divisions:
    1. Aurangabad Division included Aurangabad, Beed, Nanded, and Parbhani districts;
    2. Gulbarga Division included Bidar District, Gulbarga, Osmanabad (present Latur district was part of Osmanabad district) and Raichur District;
    3. Gulshanabad Division or Medak Division included Atraf-i-Baldah (Hyderabad), Mahbubnagar district, Medak district, Nalgonda district (Nalgundah), and Nizamabad districts, and
    4. Warangal Division included Adilabad, Karimnagar, and Warangal districts (present Khammam district was part of Warangal district).

Burgula Ramakrishna Rao, who began his career as a lawyer in Hyderabad, was born into a Brahmin family in Telangana’s Mahbubnagar district. After graduating from Ferguson College in Pune and the University of Mumbai in 1923, he began practising law in Hyderabad in 1924. During this time, he also began to participate in India’s freedom struggle. He was an active participant in the Quit India Movement.


1952 Mulki-Agitation


During the military rule of General J N Chowdhury which was formed after the incorporation of the Nizam’s regime in India , large numbers of non-Mulkis (non-natives) were recruited in various government departments.
The dissatisfaction of the people of Hyderabad state with the importation of large quantities of officers from the states of Madras, Bombay and Uttar Pradesh led to the Mulki movement.
The Mulki movement first started in Warangal district.
It has been rumored that Parthasarathy, who is the Divisional Inspector of Schools in Warangal district, has transferred some teachers and replaced them with non-Mulkies.
Shendarkar, the Deputy Director of Education, came to Warangal on July 26, 1952 to inquire into the allegations against Parthasarathy. The first student protest in the Mulki Movement took place on July 26, 1952.

Students led an agitation against non Mulkis or non locals (mulki meaning locals). The popular slogans were Ghair Mulki go back or Non-Mulki go back.

On 29 August 1952, in protest of the lathi charge in Hanamkonda High School, students in Hyderabad organised a rally from Saifabad college. The number of rallies and protests in Hyderabad increased over the next 2 to 3 days.

On 1 September 1952, the then Police commissioner of Hyderabad, Shiva Kumar Lal of Hyderabad Civil Services requested the parents and teachers to stop the students from getting involved in any violence through a public announcement.  He also issued a warning that any violence would be dealt with serious police action.

On 2 September 1952, massive rallies were organised across the state in which the students raised the following slogans:

1.     Non –Mulkis Go Back

2.     Idli – Sambar Ghar ko Jao

3.     Students Union Zindabad

In certain places the rallies resulted in lathi charge.

On 3 September 1952, the Police Commissioner issued orders prohibiting rallies, meetings and so on.

Police in riot gear stormed a rally on September 3, removing hundreds of protesters by truck. Similarly, on September 4, police opened fire in the Afzal Ganj area. A man named Mohammad Qasim was killed in the shooting. Some students were killed and many more were injured in the September 3 and 4 shootings.

Noting the seriousness of the Mulkey movement, the government on September 7 constituted a Cabinet sub-committee comprising Konda Venkata Reddy, Dr Melkote, Pool Chand Gandhi and Navajang to examine the Mulkey regulations.

The Hyderabad state government on September 5 set up a committee headed by Justice Pingali Jaganmohan Reddy to probe the September 3 and 4 shootings.

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