Migration of Telangana
“Human development and human rights are enshrined in today’s world. But they have not yet become the core values of our reality. The stability and success of any country will not be secure until we are able to spread the benefits in a more equitable manner. The obscene wealth of the few cannot be at the expense of the hungry and the destitute.” Reverend Desmond M. Tutu
- The Constitution of India guarantees freedom of movement for all citizens. The foundational principles of free migration are enshrined in clauses (d) and (e) of Article 19(1) of the Constitution, which guarantee all citizens the right to move freely throughout the territory of India, and reside and settle in any part of the territory of India. Article 15 prohibits discrimination on the basis of place of birth, among other grounds, while Article 16 guarantees equality of opportunity for all citizens in matters of public employment, and in particular prohibits the denial of access to public employment on the grounds of place of birth or residence
- Migration comprises a multitude of physical movements in space and time.
- It is a process which is spatially subdivided into sending areas, routes of migration and receiving areas.
- With regard to the motivations of migrants, three types of migration can be distinguished:
- Enforced migration,
- Voluntary migration
- Distress migration.
- The first is decided upon by external powers. Resettlement programmes of governments for instance fall into this category.
- The second is the outcome of a decision-making process of migrants and their families.
- Migration due to drought, crop failure and famine is, among other causes covered by Distress Migration category. It is impelled by push or distress factors at home such as
- Lack of employment,
- Low wage rates,
- Agricultural failure,
- Natural calamities.
- In fact, globalization and liberalization has led to the use of new technology in agriculture resulting in increased unemployment in the countryside.
- Large numbers of the poor in labour and farming communities to migrate from their home to far off places in search of employment and large, internal migrants are unskilled and semi-skilled workers from lower income groups who could be able to improve their economic position or income scale after migration.
- A recent report by UNDP exposed the same that without migration a majority of the poor would not be able to spend on health, consumption and other basic needs, and would face the risk of sliding deeper into poverty.
- The rural poor, labour and marginal and small farming communities are on the move, temporarily leaving their homes in search of employment and livelihood in other prosperous rural and/or urban areas in the country.
- It appears that, the growing part of such migration is temporary, seasonal, circular and cyclical in nature, though destinations may differ.
- Seasonal migration is certainly not a new phenomenon in India. However, the magnitude of rural labour circulation is of recent origin, and is a direct consequence of structural changes of the economy.
- Many of the poor living in underdeveloped areas, seasonal migration and commuting are the only ways of accessing the benefits of growth in other locations.
- Migration has helped them in managing risk, smoothing consumption, and earning to invest in a better future discussed seasonal migration on the basis of three elements:
- A lack of alternatives in origin areas which force entire families to migrate in search of work
- Work which is based on indebtedness generates little or no surplus for the labourers at the end of the season, and is merely for survival.
- Work which involves large-scale violation of labour laws.
- Seasonal migration as a temporary move from and followed by return to the normal place of residence, for purposes of employment.
Official Estimates of Migration of Telangana
- The two main sources of data on migration are the National Census and the National Sample Survey (NSS) and most estimates of migration are based on these.
- The total population of India at the last Census was over a billion.
- According to the National Census for 2011, 30% of the population or 307 million were migrants.
- Of these, nearly a third had migrated during the previous decade.
Causes of Migration of Telangana
There are numerous causes of migration from rural to urban centers and vice versa or from one region to another. Notable among these are:
- Social conflicts and social tension
- Gap in civilization / culture
- Law and Order situation
- Inequalities in the available social and economic opportunities and other amenities of life between groups of people and or sectors.
- Income maximization.
- Inequitable distribution of benefits of economic development.
- Social mobility and social status aspiations.
- Residential satisfaction.
- Friend and family influences
- Desire for attaining lifestyle, performance and enjoyment.
- Development of some sort of complex.
- Economic and demographic -Poverty, Unemployment, Standard of living, Low wages. Development, High fertility rates, Lack of basic health And education.
- Political- Conflict, insecurity, Violence Poor governance, Corruption & Human right abuses
- Social and cultural- Discrimination based on ethnicity religion and the like.
- Economic and demographic – Prospects of higher wages, Potential for improved, Personal and Professional
- Political- Safety and securities Political freedom
- Social and cultural -Family reunification, Ethnic (diaspora gender, migration) home land. Freedom from discrimination.
Nature of Migration of Telangana
- Rural migrants migrate to villages in Mahabubnagar and Nalgonda districts for agricultural work.
- They engage in cotton and Beedi making at different rural destinations.
- First, they work in the cotton fields till the end of that activity, and then shift from cotton to beedi making in the same village or spend some time in neighbouring villages at the destination place.
- Urban migrants largely migrate towards Hyderabad city in search of work/employment from the village.
- The urban migrants participate in different kinds of work in the city such as construction of buildings, brick-kilns, poultry farms, auto driving, hamali (load & unload labourers), paper collecting and work in private factory/service as labourers.
- Unlike urban destinations, in rural areas there is only a single occupation which is agriculture and allied activities.
Social and psychological effects of Migration of Telangana
- In its simplest terms the migration of a person places him in a situation involving social adjustments greater in degree than he is accustomed to making, and often they are new in kind.
- If the environment he has left is quite similar to that which he enters, his adjustments are few and relatively easy; hence he is not likely to suffer any very serious disintegration of character, nor is he likely to cause much disturbance in the life of the group and the community into which he enters.
- If, on the other hand, the adjustments are many and difficult, because of wide differences in cultural patterns between migrant and native, it is practically certain that the migrants and their families will show a large measure of instability in conduct, often resulting in considerable lawlessness and crime.
- The social controls which the native Concept of Migration population finds fairly adequate to direct conduct are not effective for migrants finds adjustment difficult the receiving community finds the assimilation of the migrant just as difficult, and much mutual antagonism arises.
- It is this conflict of cultural patterns that is of most importance from the social standpoint in considering the consequences of migration, although the economic conflict of migrant and native is also of great importance.
- The hereditary differences between migrant and native are of minor significance unless the migrants are of a distinctly different race which is easily distinguishable by its physical characteristics.
Effects of Migration of Telangana
- Large-scale population mobility and the consequent redistribution of population have a number of economic, social, political, ecological and demographic effects.
- According to Spengler and Myers, “Migration consists of a variety of movements that can be described in the aggregate as an evolutionary and development-dostering process operating in time and space to correct rural-urban, inter-urban and inter-regional imbalances. It may also spread information, when migrants are more skilled than those living in the regions of destitution, and it may break the cake of custom developing migrants and make the latter a dynamic force”.
Consequences of Migration of Telangana:
- Urbanization: Migration aids in Urbanization. Thomson also viewed urbanization in the form of migration. Preston considers rural urban migration as an indicator of regional and sectoral distortions in the pattern of development. The UN also estimated that about 60 per cent of the urban growth in developing countries is due to the rate of natural increase of urban areas and the remaining 40 per cent is due to migration. Migration is the chief mechanisim by which all the world’s greatest urbanization trends have been accomplished.
- Rural depopulation: Migration to urban areas results in rural depopulation. As most of the productive work force leaves rural areas in search of better opportunities the rural areas are left behind with the old and the unable.
- Social status: Migration is helpful in equalizing social status, income of rural urban settlements, checking fragmentation of land holdings and promotes concept of division of labour and specialization. Migration also helps in cultural diffusion and cultural assimilation as peoples from diverse cultures settle and in due course of time they share and exchange their cultural values and ethos thus helping in cultural diffusion.
- Remittances: Income sent home in the form of monetary assistance can help in paying the debts, increasing food security, help diversify livelihoods and to reduce vulnerability associated with shocks
Case Study for the Mahaboobnagar District Migration of Telangana:
- Mahabubnagar is more of a traditional type of Caste society with the dominant Reddy Caste controlling the land and the villages through Gram Panchayat and the traditional village administrative system called Patel-Patwari system. From the 1980s onwards, the conditions started changing with increasing opportunities for education and employment outside the village.
- In most of the Telangana region, OBCs have emerged as an economic and political force due to these opportunities and the reservations enjoyed by them in the local bodies.
- With the enactment of 73rd Constitutional Amendment Act in 1993 it gave further scope for members from marginalized communities to enter the citadels of power and expand their political class.
- Economy of the district is backward and primarily agricultural.
- Out of a total geographical area of 18.47 lakh hectares, 14.13 lakh hectares is cultivable land and 2.68 lakh hectares is forest land.
- It has an irrigated area of only 1.47 lakh hectors and the accounts for only eight per cent of the total land and ten per cent of the cultivable area.
- As mentioned earlier, the district is severely drought prone and its agriculture is mainly rain fed.
- But the region is close to Hyderabad and migration takes place on a large scale not only to Hyderabad but also to the other parts of the country.
- Migrants are mostly employed in construction labour in large scale projects like dams and highways
- Migration of Telangana and related issues are one of the major thrust of research now a day.
- In spite of number of studies have been conducted still there is a lot issues related to the migration has not been addressed.
- The main cause and concern behind the Migration of Telangana is the economic factor; so agriculture and non-farm sector at rural landscape should be given the top priority to control migration.
- Hence, the government should kick off inclusive rural policies through which credit support and rights based service delivery and other services can be assured to the target demography.
- Rural-urban migration can be controlled on a large scale if the government will provide all kind of support to the rural migrants for getting their livelihoods and provide them basic amenities for a descent standard of living at the rural areas as like as its urban counterpart.
- The government should develop public policy by integrating social inclusion in milieu of rural diversity for the wellbeing of all the segments of rural community.
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