Telangana Human Development Index
- Human development is a process of enlarging people’s choices. But human development is also the objective, so it is both a process and an outcome.
- Human development implies that people must influence the processes that shape their lives. In all this, economic growth is an important means to human development, but not the end.
- Human development is the development of the people through building human capabilities, by the people through active participation in the processes that shape their lives and for the people by improving their lives.
- It is broader than other approaches, such as the human resource approach, the basic needs approach and the human welfare approach.
- The composite Human Development Index (HDI) integrates three basic dimensions of human development. Life expectancy at birth reflects the ability to lead a long and healthy life. Mean years of schooling and expected years of schooling reflect the ability to acquire knowledge. And gross national income per capita reflects the ability to achieve a decent standard of living
- To measure human development more comprehensively, the Human Development Report also presents four other composite indices.
- The Inequality-adjusted HDI discounts the HDI according to the extent of inequality. The Gender Development Index compares female and male HDI values.
- The Gender Inequality Index highlights women’s empowerment. And the Multidimensional Poverty Index measures nonincome dimensions of poverty
Human development—a people-centred approach
- Human development is about acquiring more capabilities and enjoying more opportunities to use those capabilities. With more capabilities and opportunities, people have more choices, and expanding choices is at the core of the human development approach. But human development is also a process.
- Anchored in human rights, it is linked to human security. And its ultimate objective is to enlarge human freedoms. Human development is development of the people through the building of human resources, for the people through the translation of development benefits in their lives and by the people through active participation in the processes that influence and shape their lives.
- Income is a means to human development but not an end in itself. The human development approach in the 1990 Human Development Report also introduced a composite index, the Human Development Index (HDI), for assessing achievements in the basic dimensions of human development. Those dimensions of human development are to lead a long and healthy life, measured by life expectancy at birth; to acquire knowledge, measured by mean years of schooling and expected years of schooling; and to achieve a decent standard of living, measured by gross national income per capita.
Life Expectancy at Birth
- The indicator of life expectancy at birth is used to measure the realised achievement in the health dimension, that is, ‘to be able to live a long life’.
- The life expectancy at birth denotes the number of years that a child can expect to live at the time of birth, given the agespecific mortality rates in the population.
- The life expectancy, however, is an indicator of very long-term improvement in health.
Mean Years of Schooling
- Mean Years of Schooling (MYS) is one of the two indicators used to measure educational achievement in HDRs by UNDP.
- It replaced the literacy rate as an indicator under the education dimension in 2010. MYS indicates the average number of completed years of education of a country’s population.
- Usually, MYS is estimated for populations aged 25 years and older, which is also the indicator used in the calculation of the HDI by UNDP
Expected Years of Schooling
- EYS is a measure of the number of years of schooling a child at the start of his or her education is expected to receive, if current rates of enrolment are maintained throughout the child’s life.
Income Per Capita
- Income per capita is considered as an ‘indirect’ indicator of human development. The first HDR of UNDP (1990) observes that an indicator of ‘command over resources needed for a decent living’ requires data on access to land, credit, income and other sources.
- In 2010, instead of GDP per capita, Gross National Income (GNI) per capita is taken as the indicator.
- For allowing cross-country comparison, the GNI per capita of the countries was adjusted by Purchasing Power Parity (PPP) ratios.
Facts Related to Talengana
Health Dimension of Human Development in Telangana
- The Infant Mortality Rate (IMR) is an important component of mortality indicating the health status of the newborn. The Infant Mortality Rate at the State level was 43 in 2011.
Maternal Mortality Rate
- The Maternal Mortality Rate (MMR) is a sensitive indicator reflecting the availability of health care facilities and the prevailing socio-economic scenario.
- The Maternal Mortality Ratio (MMR) is defined as the number of maternal deaths during pregnancy or within 42 days after the termination of pregnancy per one lakh live births during a year.
- The estimates of maternal mortality are required not only to capture the reproductive health status of women but also to get an idea of the adequacy of maternal services provided to women.
- One of the major goals of MDG (2000) and national goals has been to bring down the MMR to 100 per lakh births by 2012.
- Socio Economic Outlook 2016 98 According to the data released by the Ministry of Health and Family Welfare, the MMR in Telangana was 92 per lakh births in 2011-13.
- Nutritional status is a major determinant of the health and well-being of children.
- Inadequate or unbalanced diets and chronic illness are associated with poor nutrition among children. Percentage of children below age five classified as malnourished according to three anthropometric indices of nutritional status (height for age, weight for height and weight for age).
- According to DLHS-4 (2012-13), the lowest rate stunting was reported in Warangal district (12%) followed by Nalgonda (18%). However, the highest rate of stunting was recorded in Mahabubnagar (34%), followed by Nizamabad (33%), and Hyderabad (29%).
Total Fertility Rate
- The pace of decline in fertility was slower till the first half of the 1980s but thereafter there has been a rapid decline in fertility in Telangana.
- The decline in fertility was achieved primarily through contraceptive use almost solely through female sterilization. District-wise total fertility rate projections indicated that a woman in Telangana State, on an average, had 1.8 children in her lifetime.
- The districts which reported fertility rates over and above replacement level were Medak (2.2) and Mahabubnagar (2.4) in 2013. It is to be noted that fertility differences have narrowed down considerably among women with a higher level of education and women across locations and social groups.
- Medak, Rangareddy and Hyderabad attained a higher growth of Gross District Domestic Product (GDDP) than that of the State during 2004-2011.
- Except Medak the other two districts have shown higher level of HDI values with ranks 2nd and 1st respectively. Despite the achievement of the highest growth in GDDP, Medak was ranked the lowest in human development in 2011-12.
- This may be because the higher growth in Medak may not have resulted in improvements in household consumption.
- The growth of GDDP in Nalgonda, Nizamabad and Karimnagar districts was slightly lower than that of State. Out of these three districts, only Karimnagar had achieved a higher level of HDI with a rank of 3 in 2011-12.
- Mahabubnagar, Khammam, Warangal and Adilabad achieved growth rates of GDDP ranging from 8 to 10 percent, lower that of the State. These districts, except Mahabubnagar, achieved a middle level of human development. Thus, economic growth has not shown any signifi cant impact on the level of human development across the districts of Telangana State.
Gender Gap in Literacy Rates
- The gender gap is the main contributor to low literacy. At the State level, the female literacy rate was only 57.9 per cent as against 75.0 per cent among males in 2011, indicating a gap of 17.1 percentage points.
- Mahbubnagar, Nalgonda, Adilabad, Nizamabad and Medak have shown a higher gender disparity of 20 percentage points
Literates with Primary and above level
- Around 79 percent of males and 78 percent of females were literates with primary and above level schooling in the State during 2011.
- There was not much difference between males and females. The gap between rural Socio Economic Outlook 2016 105 and urban areas was 7 percentage points.
- The percentage of literates with primary and above level of education exceeded 80 percent in Hyderabad, Rangareddy, Karimanagar and Warangal districts. With respect to women, this percentage was higher than 80 percent only in Hyderabad and Rangareddy.
Literacy among 15-24 age Population
- Around 87 percent of persons in the age group of 15-24 were literates at the State level in 2011. The proportion among males was 91.1 percent and among females it was 87 percent.
- The gender gap was 4.1 percentage points at the State level.
- However, it was more than 10 percentage points in Mahabubnagar, Nalgonda, Medak and Adilabad districts.
- The same districts have also shown a higher rural-urban gap in the literacy rates of persons in this age group
The drop-out rate at the primary level
- The drop-out rate at the primary level in the State was 23.1 percent during 2011-12.
- The drop-out rate among STs was 35.8 percent, higher than that of SCs and all social groups. The drop-out rates were lower among SCs as compared to all social groups and STs. This is the case among boys and girls.
- For all social groups, the drop-out rates for both male and female were higher than the State average in Adilabad, Mahabubnagar, Medak, Nalgonda and Warangal. The same is the case with STs also.
Primary Completion among children of 12 years old
- The proportion of children of 12 years completing primary education was 67 percent according to 2011 Census.
- The percentage of boys was 68 and that of girls was 66 percent with reference to the completion of primary education.
- The proportion of children both boys and girls who had completed primary education was the lowest in Hyderabad with 57 percent.
- The percentage of children who had completed primary was higher in rural than in urban areas. However, the percentage was higher in urban areas in Adilabad, Khammam and Mahabubnagar districts.
- HDI and its components have improved over a period of time across all the districts of Telangana.
- The analysis reflects declining inequalities and exhibits convergence of HDI across the districts.
- However, it is indicated that economic growth has no direct linkages with the level of human development.
- Districts with a high rate of economic growth have shown low value of HDI.
- Economic growth in those districts has not necessarily benefi tted the local population and thus not resulted in improving their living standards.
- However, growth in Monthly Percapita Consumption Expenditure (MPCE) has strong linkages with the level of human development.
- It is also evident that the level of public expenditure and its effi cient utilisation along with other factors infl uences the human development
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