dmpq-. Define Darknet. Mention the challenges to regulate the Darknet.

. Darknet is a part of the deep web, but the deep web is accessible whereas the darknet is deliberately hidden.  The content of darknet is encrypted and requires specific browsers such as TOR (The Onion Ring), FreeNet, Invisible Internet Project (I2P), TAILS (The Amnesic Incognito Live System), Whonix browser to access those pages.

TOR was developed by United States naval research laboratory employees to protect US intelligence communications online. It is termed so as the traffic from the browser created several layers like those of an Onion before reaching the destination site.

TOR is also used for legitimate purposes like secure and sensitive communications relating to medical ailments, helping law enforcement officials track down criminals, and assisting cybersecurity professionals to conduct security testing on their networks securely. It also provides access to social media websites in countries where they are banned. Using the Tor browser is not a criminal activity, although intelligence units keep a track of Tor downloads to predict any possible criminal activity.

Challenges of Regulation

Encryption technique and anonymity

This is one of the biggest challenges faced by the authorities- the dark web is completely anonymous making it difficult to attain sufficient information that could help combat cybercrimes and track criminals who exploit this space.

Cryptocurrency

Most financial transactions on the dark web are performed in cryptocurrencies which provide further anonymity. The technology of cryptocurrency called the blockchain is a digital ledger of transactions distributed across the network in which the blocks are cryptographically secured. It records information in a way that makes it difficult or impossible to modify or hack the system.

Bitcoin transactions

Bitcoin transactions have facilitated all kinds of illegal activities by cybercriminals and terrorists on the dark web and this has made it extremely difficult for law enforcement agencies to follow the trail of money to gather evidence of a crime. Regulation of cryptocurrencies is possible only concerning their legitimate use while a large portion of them can still be used for illegitimate purposes.

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