Prithviraj Chauhan and Muhammad of Ghor

Prithviraj Chauhan

Prithviraja III, popularly known as Prithviraj Chauhan or Rai Pithora in the folk legends, was an Indian king from the Chahamana (Chauhan) dynasty. He ruled Sapadalaksha, the traditional Chahamana territory, in present-day north-western India. He controlled much of the present-day Rajasthan, Haryana, and Delhi; and some parts of Madhya Pradesh and Uttar Pradesh. His capital was located at Ajayameru (modern Ajmer), although the medieval folk legends describe him as the king of India’s political centre Delhi to portray him as a representative of the pre-Islamic Indian power.

Early in his career, Prithviraj achieved military successes against several neighbouring Hindu kingdoms, most notably against the Chandela king Paramardi. He also repulsed the early invasions by Muhammad of Ghor, a ruler of the Muslim Ghurid dynasty. However, in 1192 CE, the Ghurids defeated Prithviraj at the Second battle of Tarain. His defeat at Tarain is seen as a landmark event in the Islamic conquest of India, and has been described in several semi-legendary accounts. The most popular of these accounts is Prithviraj Raso, which presents him as a “Rajput”, although the Rajput identity did not exist during his time.

Muhammad of Ghor

Mu’izz ad-Din Muhammad Ghori, born Shihab ad-Din (1149 – March 15, 1206), also known as Muhammad of Ghor, was Sultan of the Ghurid Empire along with his brother Ghiyath ad-Din Muhammad from 1173 to 1202 and as the sole ruler from 1202 to 1206.  Mu’izz ad-Din was one of the greatest rulers of the Ghurid dynasty and is credited with laying the foundation of Muslim rule in the Indian subcontinent, which lasted for several centuries. He reigned over a territory spanning over parts of modern-day Afghanistan, Bangladesh, Iran, north India, Pakistan, Tajikistan and Turkmenistan.

Mu’izz ad-Din took the city of Ghazni in 1173 to avenge the death of his ancestor Muhammad ibn Suri at the hands of Mahmud of Ghazni and used it as a launching-pad for expansion into northern India.[2] In the meantime, he assisted his brother Ghiyath in his contest with the Khwarazmian Empire for the lordship of Khorasan in Western Asia. In 1175, Mu’izz captured Multan from the Hamid Ludi dynasty, which were Muslim Pashtun, and also took Uch in 1175. He also annexed the Ghaznavid principality of Lahore in 1186, the last haven of his Persianised rivals. After the death of Ghiyath in 1202, he became the successor of the Ghurid Empire and ruled until his assassination in 1206.

A part of Rajasthan was under the control of Muslim rulers around 1200 AD. The chief centers of their authority were Ajmer, Nagaur and Ranthanbhor. At the beginning of the 13th century AD, the most well-kno

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