Rajasthan : An introduction

Rajasthan : An introduction

According to 2011 Census final Report population of Rajasthan is 6,85,48,437 (ie 6.85 Crore) and is 8th in the country based on population.

North to south- 23.03 N TO 30.12N

West to east- 69.30 E To 78.17 E

Tropic of cancer passes through Southern part through the Banswarda and dungpur districts


State boundry is shared with Gujrat, Madhya Pradesh (Longest), Uttar Pradesh, Haryana and Punjab.

Gujrat:-Pardmer, Jalor,Sirohi,Udaipur,Dungarpur,Banswarda

Madhya Pradesh:-Dholpur,Karoli,Sawai Madhepur, kota, Bara,Chitorgarh,Bhilwarda,Pratapgarh,Banswarda and Jhalaward

Uttar Pradesh:-Bharatpur, Dholpur

Haryana:-Hanumangarh, Churu,Jhunjhunu,sikar,Jaipur,Alwar,Bharatpur

Punjab:- Shriganganagar and Hanumargarh of Raj and firozpur and muktshpur of punjab

Total Boundary of state is 5920 KM( 1070 KM with Pakistan)

Districts with border with Pakistan from north to south are:-

  • Shri Ganganagar:- 210 Km
  • Bikaner:- 168Km (shortest)
  • Jaisalmer:-464 Km(longest)
  • Barmer:-228 Km

8 Districts have no border with other state or country (namely Pali,Rajsamand,Jodhpur,Nagor,Dosa,and bundi.)

Pali border with (EIGHT) maximum districts of raj.

25 districts at Independence

  • 26th Ajmer (after integration of Ajmer Merwarda union territory)
  • 27th Dholpur (bifurcating Bharatpur on 15th apr 1982)
  • 28th Bara (Bifurcating Kota on 10th Apr 1991)
  • 29th Dosa( Bifurcating Jaipur on 10th Apr 1991)
  • 30th Rajsamand( Bifurcating Udaipur on 10th Apr 1991)
  • 31st Hanumangarh( Bifurcating Shriganganangar on 12-jul-1994)
  • 32nd Karoli ( Bifurcating Sawaimadhepur on 19-july-1997)
  • 33rd Pratapgarh ( Reorganizing Chitorgarh, Udaipur and Banswarda on 26-jan-2008)

Area wise Largest Five Districts( in Decreasing order):-

  1. Jaisalmer
  2. Barmerd
  3. Bikaner
  4. Jodhpur
  5. Nagore

Population wise Largest Five Districts( in Decreasing order):-

  1. Jaipur
  2. Jodhpur
  3. Alwar
  4. Nagore
  5. Udaipur


Rajasthan : Geological Structure

Geologically Rajasthan comprises rocks from oldest Archean rocks to recent alluvium formations .

The oldest formations are known as Banded Gneissic Complex exposed in central and southern Rajasthan.

The Aravalli hill range dividing the State diagonally is made up of precambrian rocks of Aravalli and Delhi Super group comprising the metamorphosed gneisses, schists, marble, quartzite, calc silicate, ultra basic, acidic and basic intrusive rocks. This is known as Delhi fold belt and is an important horizon for base metals, other metallic and non-metallic minerals.

The eastern and southeastern parts of the State are occupied by rocks of Vindhyan Super group mainly forming a plateau of sandstone, shale’s and limestone.

In the southern part Deccan trap formation of cretaceous age are exposed.

In west :-

  • near jodhpur there are reserves of sandstone
  • near jalore-siwana there are reserves of granite
  • malani there are reserves of rayolite

in north

  • dholpur and karoli- red sanstone
  • Jaisalmer – steel grade lime stone

The Aravalli metallogenic province of Rajasthan is the most important geological province for base metal and gold deposits. The province contains the world class Rampura-Agucha Lead-Zinc deposit along with several large deposits of Lead and Zinc in Rajpura-Dariba and Zawar belts. In addition, there are a number of deposits in Deri-Basantgarh belt. Since the last decade, several gold deposits have been proved in the southern part of the province in Banswara district.

Mineral Potentiality: The State is geologically so endowed that it become a veritable repository of minerals. Rajasthan is fortunate enough to have a wide spectrum of mineral deposits. There are about 58 different kind of major and minor minerals produced in the State, contributing an annual revenue of more than 3088 crores and more than 5953 crores from petroleum.

Rajasthan is the sole producer of garnet (gem variety), jasper and wollastonite.

Almost entire production of zinc (concentrate), calcite, asbestos and gypsum in the country was reported from Rajasthan. Besides,

Rajasthan is the leading producer of ball clay (70%), feldspar (36%), fluorite (graded) (59%), Kaolin (44%), lead concentrate (89%), ochre (90%), phosphorite (90%), silver (81%), steatite (76%), barytes (32%), copper (32%), quartzite (33%) and silica sand (21%).








Rajasthan : Physical regions of rajasthan

Rajasthan is divided into four main physical regions which are as follows:-

1:- Western Desert Plains

2:- Aravalli Region (part of Gondwana land) Gurushikar 1722 m

3:- Eastern Plains

4:- Hadoti Region (Black Soil)




Western Desert Plains 

it has following sub regions:

  • ghagar plains
  • shekhawati region
  • nagori highlands
  • luni basin

It covers 61.11% area(highest) and 40 % population(highest)

Climate it dry and extreme hot and soil is sandy


rivers:- luni, ghaghar, kakni,kantli

Aravalli Region

it has following sub regions:

  • north east aravali region
  • mid aravali region
  • mevar hills or bhorat highlands
  • abu mountains

It covers 9% area and 10 % population

Climate it semiarid and rainfall is 50cm-100cm and soil is brown-black,mountaneous


rivers:- banas,Kothari,khari, sabarmati,vakal

Eastern Plains 

it has following sub regions:

  • chambal basin
  • banas basin
  • mahi basin
  • banganga basin

It covers 23% area and 39 % population

Climate it semiarid and rainfall is 50cm-80cm and soil is yellow

crops:-wheat, gram,pulses,sugarcane,peanuts,jwar

Hadoti Region (Black Soil)

it has following sub regions:

  • deccan highlands
  • vindhyan region

It covers 6.89% area and 11 % population

Climate it semiarid and rainfall is 80cm-100cm and soil is volcanic

crops:-tobacco , opium,soyabean

rivers:- chambal,kali sindh,parvati,parvan,aahu,nevaj

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