Since time immemorial Human Prosperity is linked with the livestock wealth. It has been rightly said by late U.N.Dhebar that “To think of Rural Development without Livestock Improvement is to think of Modern Industrialization without Power Stations”.
Andhra Pradesh has some of the richest livestock resources in the Country and is one of the most advanced States in Animal Husbandry activities. The Livestock play a vital role in Socio-economic and cultural life of our people.
During the year 1892, Civil Veterinary Department was established in the composite Madras State to provide Veterinary Aid to the needy farmers. Subsequently after Independence, C.V.D was renamed as Animal Husbandry Department (1948), with the main objective of treatment and prevention of diseases in livestock. Initially the emphasis was on health care only, but subsequently several schemes have been taken up for overall growth of livestock sector.
Animal husbandry activities in Andhra pradesh
- Dairy Farming
- Sheep farming
- Goat Farming
- Poultry Farming
- Emu Farming
- Rabbit Farming
- Quail Farming
- Turkey Farming
During 55 years of formation of Andhra Pradesh, Animal Husbandry Sector has achieved phenomenal growth in its different spheres. With the launching of several five year plans, Animal Husbandry activities were reoriented towards increased production of livestock products like Milk, Meat and Eggs, besides providing adequate health care and control of diseases aiming to improve the economy of rural poor through livestock rearing. With its livestock resources and gradual enlightment of the farmers along with dedicated and sustained efforts of the Department over the years have elevated the State to a prominent position in the Country in the Livestock Sector. The State rose to number one position in Poultry and Egg Production in the Country. From a humble beginning of backyard poultry it has grown to a stage of dynamic industry producing 164534 lakh eggs per annum. The Milk production also made quantum leap from 18.08 lakh tonnes in 1979-80 to approx. 86.24 lakh tonnes. Meat production increased from 0.96 lakh tones (1979-80) to 4.57 lakh tonnes. Effective Veterinary and Animal Husbandry services rendered over the years have been the main instrument in achieving these spectacular production levels.
AN INSTRUMENT OF SOCIO-ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT
The Livestock Development has attained the status of an Agro-based industry generating economic growth, gainful employment and livelihood to many weaker sections in the State. Small and marginal farmers and landless poor contributing to 62% of total milk production own 70% of livestock in Andhra Pradesh. Nearly women provide 60% of livestock farming labour. Similarly rural shepherds own 90% of sheep population and entire piggery development is the monopoly of weaker sections. Thus the livestock sector has become a powerful tool for socio-economic change and an important priority component in rural development and poverty alleviation programmes in the State.
ABUNDANT LIVESTOCK WEALTH
Andhra Pradesh is well known for its livestock wealth. The State has the world famous breed of Ongole Cattle an Aseel breed of poultry, which is the principle source for the development of broiler breeds in the world. Andhra Pradesh is also famous for Nellore breed of sheep, which is well known for quality mutton production.
Presently Andhra Pradesh stands first in poultry (1005.80 lakhs) and sheep population (210.15 lakhs), second in Buffalo population (107.68 lakhs), seventh in goat population (64.27 lakhs), and eighth in cattle (94.24 lakhs) and pig population (5.4.9 lakhs) in the Country.
Some govt. schemes for animal husbandry development
- Sunandini scheme ( for SC and ST )
- Rashtriya krishi vikas yojna
- Rural Backyard Paultry scheme
Organizations involved in Animal Welfare Activities in Andhra Pradesh
GosamrakshanaSamithi, Contonment, Vizianagaram
Sri Bhramananda Ashram Goshala, Bhaligatam, Narsipatnam, Visakhapatnam District
Sri GopalaGorakshamaSamghamGoshala, Indrapalem, Kakinada, East Godavari District
The GauthamiGorakshanaSangamGoshala, Central Jail Road, Rajhamundry, E G District
EluruGorakshanaSamithi, Ramachandra Raopet, Eluru, West Godavari District AWBI-07/1988 Gosadan at Koppaka Village, PedavegiMandal, West Godavari District
Sri Vijayawada GorakshakaSangam, Mallikarjunapet, Near Kanakadurga Temple, Vijayawada- AWBI-72/2002 Gosadan at Kothuru, Tadepalli Village
Sri BrindavanaGosamrakshaSangham, Machilipatnam
Guntur GorakshaSangham, 7/5 Line, Nehru Nagar, Guntur
BramarambaMallikarjunaSwamyDevasthanams’ Goshala, Srisailam Kurnool
Kurnool ZillaGorakshanaSangham, Near Venkatesh Theatre, Kurnool
- Low productivity – Though the State is in 5th position in the country as far as Milk Production is concerned, the average productivity per animal is very low (13th position) i.e. 4.67kg/day.
- No efforts to conserve Indigenous Livestock breeds native of Andhra Pradesh like Ongole and Punganur. Due to lack of adequate processing infrastructure, remunerative prices to livestock products is not ensured whenever there is glut in the market.
- Inadequate attention to augment feed and fodder leading to inadequate availability even during normal seasons.
- Degeneration of Common Property Resources which were badly neglected.
- Inadequate effort to develop and make available vaccines for economically important Diseases like Blue Tongue, Foot Rot in Sheep and Goat and other Emerging Diseases resulting in severe loss to the farmers.
Impact of bifurcation of Andhra Pradesh state on newly formed Andhra Pradesh in Livestock sector : The state is deprived of Livestock Vaccine Production and Disease Diagnostic facilities due to Veterinary Biological Research Institute devolving to Telangana state and Major National Institutes related to Livestock Development like National Research Centre on Meat; National Institute of Animal Bio-Technology (NIAB); Central Research Institute for Dry Land Agriculture (CRIDA), Centre for Cellular Micro-Biology (CCMB), Indian Immunological Limited (IIL), Fodder Research Station, AICRP on Poultry and Project Directorate on Poultry etc., have devolved to Telangana, as such the residual Andhra Pradesh is devoid of such national institutes.
The goal of achieving food and nutritional security through Livestock sources, with reducing Livestock numbers, degrading land resources, impact of climate change, increasing human population, affordable prices of livestock products to the consumers and remunerative prices to the producers has become a big challenge to the state. There is need to evaluate the results of different initiatives taken during the previous years and to reorient the strategies as the productivity of animals has to be increased.
Goal and objectives:
It is targeted to achieve a growth rate of 8% in Milk Production, 10% in Meat Production, 5% in Egg Production and overall Growth Rate of 8-10% from Livestock Sector by the end of 12th Five Year Plan.
The sector wise objectives are as follows :
- Breed improvement through large scale cross breeding, up-gradation of local buffaloes with Murrah, selective breeding in indigenous cattle like Ongole.
- Massive frozen semen, dose production and establishing Embryo Transfer (ET) technology facilities.
- Taking up pilot project to import and introduced sexed semen of very superior bulls in selected farms to increase in production.
- Promotion of commercial dairy farming in the areas surrounding Smart Cities like Vijayawada, Guntur, Visakhapatnam, Rajahmundry, Kakinada, Tirupathi, Kurnool and in North Coastal and Rayalaseema Districts of Andhra Pradesh.
- Government support for private investment on three fronts: reform regulation; provide infrastructure; and actively promote the sector.
- Reforming regulation which will include simplifying procedures, providing policies to enable large players to work closely with farmers, and ensuring policies that facilitate exports, enabling contract farming, simplifying land acquisition and export procedures, and rationalising sales tax on processed food.
- Promotion of Backyard Poultry for the benefit of rural/tribal farmers.
- Mass vaccination of sheep & goat with PPR and Entero-toxaemia, Sheep Pox.
- De-worming to increase weight gain
- Thrust on Meat Breeds – promoting exchange of breeding rams among farmers to avoid inbreeding which is a common problem now.
- Quality and Hygienic Meat Production – promoting rural slaughter houses and training the butchers.
- Process Development and Technology Up-gradation – Appropriate technologies for efficient utilization of Animal byproducts like variety meats, wool, hides, skins, bone, hoof, horn, tallow and others of pharmaceutical importance.
- Promoting Marketing Agencies – facilitation sheep/goat, market yards under cooperative/PPP mode.
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