- the understanding of laws in general and environmental laws in particular by the public is limited. This is partly because environmental laws are written using complicated language that is very difficult for the public to understand.
- many communities, organizations, and companies still operate for short-term gains, without consideration of long-term targets or impacts on the environment, society or future generations.
- In terms of public administration, even though the government claims that environmental protection is an important concern, when conflicts between economic and environmental benefits arise, economic growth is still prioritized.
- the awareness and capacity of authorities to handle violations of the law is weak with cumbersome procedures to enforce the law. Detection of violations does not always lead to action. When penalties are issued, fines are often low and there is no requirement for the defendent to take steps to restore the breach.
- there are various factors that deny local people access to justice in order to protect their rights. Primarily, local people lack the resources to bring proceedings.
- local unemployment sometimes means that polluting companies are not requested to close. Similarly, provinces eager to increase employment and income may not always conduct environmental impact assessments (EIA) before issuing operating licenses.
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