Definition of Globalization :- Its a process(not an outcome) characterized by increasing global Interconnections by gradual removal of barriers to trade and investment between nation and higher economic efficiency through competitiveness.
Various economic, political, social and cultural effects of globalization are as follows:-
- Breaking down of national economic barriers
- International spread of Trade, Financial and productive activities
- Growing power of transnational cooperation and International financial Institutions(WTO, IMF)Through the process of:-
1- Liberalization- relaxation of restrictions, reduction in role of state in economic activities,decline in role of govt in key industries, social and infrastructural sector.
2- Privatization- Public offering of shares and private sale of shares, entry of private sector in public sector and sale of govt enterprises.
4- International regulatory bodies(WTO,IMF)
6- Infrastructural development
7- Expansion of information and communication technology and birth of information age.
8- Outsourcing of services- ie BPO and Call Centres.
9- Trade related intellectual property rights(TRIPS)- product based patent rather than process based.
- Withdrawal of National govt from social sectors ie declining share of govt in public spending, reducing social benefits for worker(social dumping,pension cuts,subsidies reduction)
- Labor reforms and deteriorating Labor welfare:-
- Labour Market deregulation:-
- Minimum wage fixing
- Employment security
- Modifying tax regulation
- Relaxed standards of security
- Increased Mechanization demands skilled labour and thus loss of job for unskilled labour
- Loss of jobs for traditional workers for example bihar silk workers due to imported Chinese- Korean silk
- Labour Market deregulation:-
- Feminism of Labour ie increased women participation specially in soft industries
- Trickle down theory of poverty reduction has limited success and in agricultural nations poverty has infect increased.
- Unsustainable development practices such as:- excessive use of fertilizers, irrigation, fish trawling by mnc’s(Protein flight ),Exploitation of natural resources by MNC’s.
- Migration and urbanization have lead to problem of slums
- Commercialization of indigenous knowledge:- patenting
- Rising inequality in wealth concentration
- Increased pace of cultural penetration
- Globalization of culture
- Development of hybrid culture
- Resurgence of cultural nationalism ie shivsena opposing valentine day
- Globalization of National Policies- Influenced by International agencies
- Reducing economic role of govt
- Political lobbying
- Increased competition
- Employment generation
- Investment and capital flow
- Foreign trade
- Spread of technical know how
- Spread of education
- Legal and ethical effects
- Improved status of women in the society
- Agriculture:- greater efficiency,productivity, use of HYV seeds, Future contracts and cooperative farming
- Higher standard of living
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