In 1599, an English company was formed by a group of merchants to trade with the east, known as Merchant Adventurers. It was given the permission and exclusive rights to trade with the east, by the queen in 1600. Mughal emperor, Jahangir, gave captain Hawkins the royal farman to set up factories on the western coast. Later, Sir Thomas Roe obtained the farman to establish factories in all parts of the Mughal empire. Bombay passed into the British hands as dowry given by the Portuguese. The British conflicts with the Dutch were settled by giving up all claims to Indonesia.
The conditions in the south were apt for the English. They started from Madras, by building a fort there, called Fort St. George. The problems broke out when the English sacked Hugli and declared war on the emperor. They failed miserably. This was the first lesson they learnt. From then on, they relied on flattery and humble entreaties, waiting for their chance. In 1698, Fort William was built and Calcutta was founded. Madras, Bombay and Calcutta soon grew up to be flourishing centres of trade.
The French, under Dupleix, who had come to India by then had already started interfering in the affairs of the local princes using their well-equipped army. In 1742, a war had broken out in Europe between France and England.
Following the death of the nizam in 1748, his son Nasir Jung took over the crown. He was challenged by Muzaffar Jung, a grandson of the nizam. Similar situations were in the Carnatic, where Chanda Sahib was conspiring against the nawab Anwarudeen. The French took the sides of both the rebels, and won both of their claims for them, killing Anwarudeen and Nasir Jung. The English, naturally took the side of the fallen, under Muhammad Ali, a son of Anwarudeen. The wars were then won by the English side under the able generalship and cunning of Robert Clive. Finally, the French recalled Dupleix from India, according to their treaty in 1754. Later, in 1760, the French were completely destroyed at the battle of Wandiwash. Thus, the English remained the sole masters of India.
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