Narration



Narration (Direct- indirect speech)

General Rules

[i]Assertive Sentence or Statement

1. If the reporting verb is in the present or future tense, the tense in the

Reported speech is not changed.

(a)Direct: Nabil says, “I am fine.”

   Indirect: Nabil says that he is fine.

(b)Direct: The man says, “I shall do it.”

   Indirect: The man says that he will do it.

(c)Direct: He says, “I went there yesterday.”

   Indirect: He says that he went there yesterday.

(d)Direct: He will say, “I am ready to go.”

   Indirect: He says that he is ready to go.

 

2. If the reporting verb is in the past tense, the verb in the reported

Speech is changed into the corresponding past form.

(a)Nadin said, “I am fine.’

   Nadin said that he was fine.

(b)He said, “I want to go.”

   He said that he wanted to go.

 

(c)He said, “I am reading a book.”

  He said that he was reading a book.

(d)He said, “I have learnt my1esson.”

  He said that he had learnt his lesson.

(e)He said, “I have been learning English.”

  He said that he had been teaming English. .

(f)He said, “I had reached the school before the bell rang”

  He said that he had reached the school before the bell rang.

(g)He said, “I can do the work.

  He said that he could do the work.

(h)He said, .”I shall do it.”

  He said that he would do it.

(i)He said, “I shall have done it.”

  He said that he would have done it.

 

3. If the reporting verb is in the past tense, and the verb of the reported

Speech is in the past indefinite tense, it (the verb in the reported

Speech) is changed into the past perfect tense.

(a)Direct: Urmi said, “I went to school.

  Indirect: Urmi said that she had gone to school.

(b)Direct: He said, “I wrote the book.”

  Indirect: He said that he had written the book.

 

(c)Direct: Kabir said to me, “I was sick.”

  Indirect: Kabir told me (said to me) that he had been sick.

 

 

4. If the reporting verb is in the past tense, and the verb in the reported

Speech is in the past continuous, it (the verb in the reported speech) is

Changed into the past perfect continuous tense.

(a)Direct:  He said, “I was reading a book.”

  Indirect: He said that he had been reading a book.

(b)Direct: Shimu said to me, “I was making a research to solve the

Problem.”

   Indirect: Shimu told me (said to-me) that she had been making a research to

Solve the problem.

 

-Note: The use of the conjunction that between the reporting speech and the

reported speech is not a must in the indirect speech.

 

5. If the Direct Speech describes a universal truth, constant fact, habitual

Fact, geographical fact and quotations, the verb in the reported speech

Remains unchanged:

 

(a)Direct: The teacher said, “The earth moves round the sun.”

  Indirect: The teacher said that the earth moves round the sun.

(b)Direct: He said, “My father reads the Holy Quran every morning.”

  Indirect: He said that his father reads the Holy Quran every morning.

(c)Direct: Keats said, “A thing of beauty is a joy for ever.”

  Indirect: Keats I said that a thing of beauty is a joy for ever.

 

6.The First Person of the direct speech is changed into the person the man spoken to and the third person does not have any change: ‘

(a)Direct: Rahman said to Mamun, “Your father will go to my office”

  Indirect: Rahman told Mamun that his father would go to his office.

(b)Direct: Salam says to you, “You did not help me.”

  Indirect: Salarn tells you that you did not help him.

(c)Direct: They said to us, “He will meet you.”

  Indirect: They told us that he would meet us.

 

Note: If the Reporting Verb has an object, it is not good English to write, said

to him before that, It is better to write told us/him etc.

 

7. If the Reported speech has two or more verbs occurring at the same

time, the past tense of the verbs is not changed :

 

(a)Direct: The teacher said, “Mr. Ant worked hard while Mr. Grasshopper slept.”

  Indirect: The teacher said that Mr. Ant worked hard while Mr. Grasshopper slept

(b)Direct: He said, “The children sang, danced and played.”

 Indirect: He said that the children sang, danced and played.

 

8. Words that express nearness are often changed into the words

Expressing remoteness:

 

Words in direct speech              Words in indirect speech

Here                                                           there

This                                                             that

Ago                                                            before

These                                                         those

Hence                                                       thence

Come                                                             go

Hither                                                         thither

Today                                             that day, the same day

Tomorrow                                  the next day, the following day

Yesterday                                the previous day, the day before

Last night                                 the previous night, the night befor

Questions:

Level-I

Change the following sentences into indirect speech :

1. The boy says, “My father is working abroad.”

 2. Karim says, “I was right”.

3. He said to me, “I shall help you“.

 4. Anwar said to them, “You were absent from the class yesterday”.

5. The man said to Kalam, “You have not sent me the letter”.

 6. Ahmed said to his father, “I am preparing my lesson”.

7. He said to me, “I did not see the boy going“.

 8. They said to me, “You have done well”.

9. The man said to the children, “Allah is kind”.

10. They said, “We came, worked and returned

 

Level-II

 


11. He said to me, “I am ready”.

  1. He told to me that he is ready.
  2. He told me that he was ready.
  3. He told me that I am ready.
  4. He told me that I will ready.


12. Sonia said, “You help my sister”.

  1. Sonia said that I helps her sister.
  2. Sonia said to me that I helped her sister.
  3. Sonia said that I helped her sister.
  4. Sonia says that I helped her sister

 


13. They said, “We cannot live without oxygen”.

  1. They said that we can not live without oxygen.
  2. They said that they can not live without oxygen.
  3. They said that they would not live without oxygen.
  4. They says that they can not live without oxygen.

 


14. Rahul said to me, “We are mortal”.

  1. Rahul said to me that we are mortal.
  2. Rahul says to me that we are mortal.
  3. Rahul said to me that we all are mortal.
  4. Rahul said to me that he and I are mortal.

 


15. The Indian express says, “We shall issue a astrology section in our Thursday’s paper”.

  1. The Indian express says that it will issue a astrology section in their Thursday’s paper.
  2. The Indian express says that they will issue a astrology section in their Thursday’s paper.
  3. The Indian express said that it will issue a astrology section in its Thursday’s paper.
  4. The Indian express says that it will issue a astrology section in its Thursday’s paper.

 


16. John says, “I shall go there”.

  1. John said that he went there.
  2. John says that he will go there.
  3. John says that he went there.
  4. John said that I will go there.

 


17. Robert will say to me, “I am your classmate”.

  1. Robert will tell me that he is my classmate.
  2. Robert will tell me that he was my classmate.
  3. Robert will tell me that he will be my classmate.
  4. Robert said me that he is my classmate.

 


18. Sushant said to him, “I have been helping your son for years”.

  1. Sushant told him that he has helped his son for years.
  2. Sushant told him that he have been helping his son for years.
  3. Sushant told him that he had been helping his son for years.
  4. Sushant told him that he has been helping his son for years.

 


19. He said to me, “I shall write an essay”.

  1. He said to me that he will be writing an essay.
  2. He told me that he would write an essay.
  3. He said to me that he will write an essay.
  4. He told me that he would write an essay

 


20. He said to me, “I shall be writing an essay”.

  1. He told me that he would have been writing an essay.
  2. He told me that he would be writing an essay.
  3. He told me that he will be writing an essay.
  4. He told me that he shall be writing an essay.

 

Answers:

Level-I

 

1. The boy says that his father is working abroad .

2. Karim says that he was right.

3. He said to me that he would help me.

4. Anwar said to them that they had been absent from the class the previous day.

5. The man said to Kalam that he had not sent him the letter.

 6. Ahmed said to his father that he was preparing his lesson.

7. He said to me that he had not seen that boy going“.

 8. They said to me that I had done well.

9. The man said to the children that Allah is kind.

10. They said that they had come, worked and returned.

 

Level-II

11. Option B

12. Option C

13. Option A

Explanation:

Please note : When we use “we” with the universal truth, then “we” is not changed in Indirect speech.

14. Option A

Explanation:

No change, because we are using “we” with universal truth

15. Option D

Explanation:

Please note : Whenever some newspaper or magazine use “we”, “our”, “us” in direct speech , then it should be replaced by “it” or “its” in indirect speech.

 16. Option B

Explanation:

Please note : When reporting verb is in present or future Tense, then in indirect speech we do not change the Tense of Reported speech.
So “John says”, it is in present, so we will not change the Tense of “I shall go there”. That means it will remain future Tense in indirect speech also.

17. Option A

Explanation:

“I am your classmate” will remain in present tense in indirect speech because in “Robert will say to me” reporting verb is in future.
So when reporting verb in in future or present, we do not change the tense of the reported speech.

18. Option C

19. Option D

20. Option B

 

 

 

 

 


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