Animal Husbandry of Telangana
- Telangana accounts for 3.5% of India’s total geographical area and 2.9% of population and ranks 12th both in geographical area and population among Indian States.
- The State is newly formed 29th State in India and blessed with rich livestock resources especially cattle and Sheep population accounting to 5.52% of country’s population. Rural population in the State is predominantly agricultural with more than 2/3 of its workforce being engaged directly in the agriculture sector.
- About 29 lakh families in Telangana State are engaged in livestock sector for their livelihood.
- The value of livestock produce is estimated to be Rs. 12403 crores at current prices and the livestock sector contributes 4.86% to GSDP (2010-11 Third Revised Estimates).
About Animal Husbandry
- Animal Husbandry is one of the rapidly expanding sectors, playing a significant role in the rural economy by providing gainful employment to a large number of small/marginal farmers and agricultural labourers and raising their economic status.
- The economic support programs like distribution of Milch animals, sheep and poultry units have come to the rescue of the beneficiaries particularly scheduled castes, scheduled tribes and economically backward sections of the society.
- Goat is known as ‘Poor man’s cow’ in India and is a very important component in dry land farming system.
- Marginal or undulating lands unsuitable for other types of animals like cow or buffalo, goat is the best alternative.
- With very low investments goat rearing can be made in to a profitable venture for small and marginal farmers.
- Few countries in the world have no sheep.
- They are found in tropical countries and in the arctic, in hot climates and in the cold, on the desert and in humid areas.
- There are over 800 breeds of sheep in the world, in a variety of sizes, shapes, types and colours.
- Sheep were domesticated long before the dawn of recorded history.
- Wool fibres have been found in remains of primitive villages of Switzerland that date back an estimated 20000 years.
- Egyptian sculpture dating 4000-5000 B.C. portrays the importance of this species to people.
- Much mention is made in the Bible of flocks, shepherds, sacrificial lambs, and garments made of wool.
- The Roman empire prized sheep, anointed them with special oils, and combed their fleece to produce fine quality fibres that were woven into fabric for the togas of the elite.
- Perhaps the first ruminants domesticated by man along with goats, sheep are a very valuable and important asset to mankind.
- Domesticated sheep : phylum Chordata (backbone), class Mammalia (suckle their young), order Artiodactyla (hooved, even-toed), family Bovidae(ruminants), genus Ovis (domestic and wild sheep), and species Ovisaries
- Emus belong to ratite group and have high economic value for their meat, eggs, oil, skin and feathers.
- These birds are adaptable to varied climatic conditions.
- Although emu and ostrich were introduced in India, emu farming has gained much importance.
- Ratite birds have poorly developed wings and include emu, ostrich, rhea, cassowary and kiwi.
- Emu and ostrich are reared commercially in many parts of the world for their meat, oil, skin and feathers, which are of high economic value.
- The anatomical and physiological features of these birds appear to be suitable for temperate and tropical climatic conditions.
- These birds can be well maintained on extensive (ranches) and semi intensive rearing systems with reasonably high fibrous diets.
- United State, Australia and China are leading in emu farming. Emu birds are well adapted to Indian climatic conditions.
Features of Emu
- Emu has long neck, relatively small naked head, three toes and body covered with feathers Birds initially have longitudinal stripes on body (0-3 months age) then gradually turn to brown by 4-12 months age.
- Mature birds have bare blue neck and mottled body feathers. Adult bird height is about 6 feet with a weight of 45-60 kg. Legs are long covered with scaly skin adaptable to hardy and dry soil.
- Natural food of emu is insects, tender leaves of plant and forages. It also eats different kinds of vegetables and fruits like carrot, cucumber, papaya etc. Female is the larger of the two, especially during breeding season when the male may fast.
- The female is the dominant member of the pair.
- Emus live for about 30 years.
- It may produce eggs for more than 16 years. B
- irds can be maintained as flock or pair.
Why Rabbit Farming?
- With available small investment and in a small place rabbit farming gives more income
- Rabbits eat ordinary feed and convert them into a protein rich high quality meat
- Apart from meat production they can also be reared for hide and fur.
Rabbit Farming is for whom?
- For landless farmers, uneducated youth and women, rabbit farming gives an additional income as a part time job
Advantages of Rabbit Farming
- By rabbit rearing one can produce a quality protein rich meat for his own family
- Rabbits can be fed with easily available leaves, waste vegetables, grains available in the home
- Growth rate in broiler rabbits is very high. They attain 2 kgs at the age of three months
- Litter size (Number of young ones born/ kindling) in rabbits is high (around 8-12)
- When compared to the other meats rabbit meat contain high protein (21%) and less fat (8%). So this meat is suitable for all age groups from adults to children
Advantages of quail farming
- Requires minimum floor space
- Needs low investment
- Quails are comparatively sturdy birds
- Can be marketed at an early age ie. five weeks
- Early sexual maturity – starts laying eggs in about six to seven weeks of age
- High rate of egg laying -280 eggs per year
- Quail meat is tastier than chicken and has less fat content. It promotes body and brain development in children.
- Nutritionally, the quail eggs are on par with that of chicken eggs. Moreover, they contain less cholesterol.
- Quail meat and eggs are a nutritious diet for pregnant and nursing mothers.
Breeds of turkeys in India
The varieties are as follows
- Board breasted bronze:The basic plumage color is black and not bronze. The females have black breast feathers with white tips, which help in sex determination as early as 12 weeks of age.
- Board breasted white:This is a cross between Board breasted bronze and White Holland with white feathers. White plumage turkeys seems to be suitable Indian-Agro climatic conditions as they have better heat tolerance and also good and clean in appearance after dressing.
- Beltsville small white: It closely resembles the Board breasted white in color and shape but smaller in size. Egg production, fertility and hatchability tend to be higher and broodiness tends to be lower than heavy varieties.
- Nandanam turkey 1: This variety is a cross between the black desi variety and exotic Beltsville small white variety. It is suited for Tamil Nadu climatic conditions
Marketing of turkeys
The body weight of adult male and adult female turkey at the 16th week is 7.26 kg and 5.53kg. This is optimum weight for marketing the turkeys.
- The turkey will start lay from the 30th week of age and its production period is 24 weeks from the point of lay.
- Under proper feeding and artificial lightening management turkey hens lay as much as 60-100 eggs annually.
- Nearly 70 percent of the eggs will be laid in the afternoon.
- The turkey eggs are tinted and weigh about 85 gms.
- Egg is noticeably pointed at one end with strong shell.
- The protein, lipid carbohydrate and mineral content of turkey egg are 13.1%, 11.8%, 1.7% and 0.8% respectively. The cholesterol is 15.67-23.97 mg/gm of yolk
- People prefer turkey meat because of its leanest nature.
- The protein, fat, energy value of turkey meat are 24%,6.6%, 162 Calories per 100 gm of meat.
- Mineral like potassium, calcium, magnesium, iron, selenium, zinc and sodium are present.
- It is also rich in essential amino acids and vitamins like niacin, vitamin B6 and B12.
- It is rich in unsaturated fatty acids and essential fatty acids and low in cholesterol.
- A market study shows that a male turkey sold at 24 weeks of age weighing 10 to 20 kg with expenditure of Rs.300 to 450 will give a profit of Rs. 500 to 600.
- Likewise a female will give a profit of Rs.300 to 400 in a span of 24 weeks time. Besides, the turkey can be reared in scavenging and semi-scavenging conditions also.
Advantages of pig rearing
- Pigs convert inedible feeds, forages, certain grain byproducts obtained from mills, meat by products, damaged feeds and garbage into valuable nutritious meat. Most of these feeds are either not edible or not very palatable to human beings
- Pig grows fast and is a prolific breeder, farrowing 10 to 12 piglets at a time. It is capable of producing two litters per year under optimal management conditions
- The carcass return is quite high ie. 60-80 percent of live body weight
- With a small investment on building and equipment, proper feeding and sound disease control programme the farmer can profitably utilize his time and labour in this subsidiary occupation
- The faeces of pigs is used as a manure to maintain soil fertility
Pig farming- for whom?
- Small and landless farmers
- Part time earning for educated youth having agriculture as occupation
- Uneducated / Unemployed youth
- Farm women
The indigenous pig has been the basis used for pig production for a long period of time. It is small in size. Improved breeds are now being used for grading up the form the basis for pig production in the rural areas.
Animal Husbandry Department of Govt of Telangana
- The mandate given to Animal husbandry department is to build the health of the nation by increasing the availability of Animal origin foods like milk, meat and eggs to human population through scientific breeding, feeding and disease management of livestock. Besides, it strives to improve the wealth of the nation by enhancing the animal productivity and their production. In addition, various livestock based poverty alleviation programmes are implemented by the Department.
- The Livestock Development has attained the status of an Agro-based industry generating economic growth, gainful employment and livelihood to many weaker sections in the State.
- Small and marginal farmers and landless poor contributing to 62% of total milk production own 70% of livestock in Andhra Pradesh.
- Nearly women provide 60% of livestock farming labour. Similarly rural shepherds own 90% of sheep population and entire piggery development is the monopoly of weaker sections.
- Thus the livestock sector has become a powerful tool for socio-economic change and an important priority component in rural development and poverty alleviation programmes in the State
- The charterof the the Animal Husbandry Department in brief
- Improving the production potential by way of breed up gradation in cattle and buffaloes through Artificial insemination.
- Providing preventive and curative health care to livestock through constant vigil on disease outbreaks, rendering preventive vaccinations, deworming and treatment of ailing animals.
- Augmenting fodder production to meet the nutritional requirements of livestock.
- Providing relief measures to livestock during natural calamities.
- Building awareness among farmers on profitable livestock production.
- Coordinating with health department in controlling diseases of zoonotic importance.
- Providing technical support to livestock based poverty alleviation programme.
- Updating the skills of technical aswellas Para veterinary staff at regular intervals in the areas of scientific breeding, feeding and management of livestock.
LIVESTOCK PRODUCTION LEVELS ARE INDICES OF PROGRESS:
- The production levels of major livestock products like Milk, Meat and Eggs are the indices of progress in livestock sector.
- The milk production has increased from 18.08 lakh tonnes in 79-80 to 76.24 lakh tonnes in 2005-06.
- The meat production has increased from 96320 tonnes in 79-80 to 457137 tonnes in 2005-06.
- The egg production has increased from 17119 lakh nos in 79-80 to 164534 lakh nos in 2005-06.
- The per capita availability of Milk has increased from 168 gms/day (1997-98) to 286 gms/day (2005-06).
- The Per capita availability of Eggs has increased from 141 nos/annum (1997-98) to 202 nos/annum (2005-06).
- The Per capita availability of Meat has increased from 9.21 gms/day (1997-98) to 15.35 gms/day (2005-06) inspite of rapid growth in human population, which is a remarkable achievement.
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