Telangana Food security

Telangana Food security

Food Security Index

  • In India, the dimension of food security is important despite attaining self-sufficiency in food production. Though there has been a considerable improvement in productivity and production of rice and wheat, we have not been able to eliminate chronic hunger and poverty. Understanding of the different dimensions of food security, therefore, is of critical importance.
  • The concept of food security in the Indian context has been increasingly refined during the last 50 years.
  • After World War II, food security meant building emergency grain reserves and ensuring the physical availability of food in the market.
  • After the onset of green revolution in the late 1960s, it became obvious that economic access to food is equally important to ensure food security at the household level.
  • During the 1980s, the principle of social access was emphasised, with special reference to marginalised communities and gender discrimination.
  • After the United Nations Conference on Environment and Development (UNCED) conference in Rio de Janeiro, there has been an increasing recognition of the role of environmental factors in food security.
  • The ecological foundations essential for sustained agricultural progress are increasingly under stress due to human activities.
  • One of the early initiatives in assessing the food security scenario in the country was the release of a series of Atlases by M.S. Swaminathan Research Foundation (MSSRF) that looked into the food security in rural and urban areas and also the Sustainability of Food Security atlas of India.
  • Ensuring food security is an overall objective of development programmes in most developing economies like India. Several problems, such as hunger, malnutrition, under-nutrition and poverty, Association between Food Insecurity and Poverty Poverty Low productivity Human Development Food insecurity, hunger & Malnutrition Poor physical & Cognitive development arise due to food insecurity.

Historical View on Food Security

  • India‟s Public Distribution System (PDS) is the largest distribution network of its kind in the world. PDS was introduced around World War II as a war-time rationing measure.
  • Before the 1960s, distribution through PDS was generally dependant on imports of food grains.
  • It was expanded in the 1960s as a response to the food shortages of the time; subsequently, the government set up the Agriculture Prices Commission and the Food Corporation of India to improve domestic procurement and storage of food grains for PDS.
  • By the 1970s, PDS had evolved into a universal scheme for the distribution of subsidised food.
  • In the 1990s, the scheme was revamped to improve access of food grains to people in hilly and inaccessible areas, and to target the poor.
  • Subsequently, in 1997, the government launched the Targeted Public Distribution System (TPDS), with a focus on the poor.
  • TPDS aims to provide subsidised food and fuel to the poor through a network of ration shops.
  • Food grains such as rice and wheat that are provided under TPDS are procured from farmers, allocated to states and delivered to the ration shop where the beneficiary buys his entitlement.
  • The centre and states share the responsibilities of identifying the poor, procuring grains and delivering food grains to beneficiaries.
  • In September 2013, Parliament enacted the National Food Security Act, 2013.
  • The Act relies largely on the existing TPDS to deliver food grains as legal entitlements to poor households.
  • This marks a shift by making the right to food a justiciable right. In order to understand the implications of this Act, the note maps the food supply chain from the farmer to the beneficiary, identifies challenges to implementation of TPDS, and discusses alternatives to reform TPDS.

Telangana Food Security also based on National Food Security

  • The National Development Council (NDC) in its 53rd meeting held on 29th May, 2007 adopted a resolution to launch a Food Security Mission comprising rice, wheat and pulses to increase the production of rice by 10 million tons, wheat by 8 million tons and pulses by 2 million tons by the end of the Eleventh Plan (2011-12).
  • Accordingly, a Centrally Sponsored Scheme, ‘National Food Security Mission’ (NFSM), was launched in October 2007.
  • The Mission is being continued during 12th Five Year Plan with new targets of additional production of food grains of 25 million tons of food grains comprising of 10 million tons rice, 8 million tons of wheat, 4 million tons of pulses and 3 million tons of coarse cereals by the end of 12th Five Year Plan.
  • The National Food Security Mission (NFSM) during the 12th Five Year Plan will have five components
  1. NFSM- Rice;
  2. NFSM-Wheat;
  3. NFSM-Pulses,
  4. NFSM-Coarse cereals and
  5. NFSM-Commercial Crops.

Area Coverage under NFSM from 2016-17 onwards:

  • From 2016-17, NFSM is implemented in 638 districts of 29 states.
  • NFSM-Rice is being implemented in 194 districts of 25 states.
  • NFSM-Wheat is being implemented in 126 districts of 11 states.
  • NFSM-Pulses is being implemented in 638 districts of 29 states
  • An NFSM-Coarse cereal is being implemented in 265 districts of 28 states.


Identification of eligible households

The State Government shall, as soon as possible, identify-

  1. the households to be covered under the Antyodaya Anna Yojana as per the following criteria prescribed by the GOI;
    1. Landless agriculture labourers, marginal farmers, rural artisans/craftsmen such as potters, tanners, weavers, blacksmiths, carpenters, slum dwellers, and persons earning their livelihood on daily basis in the informal sector like porters, coolies, rickshaw pullers, hand cart pullers, fruit and flower sellers, snake charmers, rag pickers, cobblers, destitutes and other similar categories in both rural and urban areas.
    2. Households headed by widows or terminally ill persons/disabled persons/persons aged 60 years or more with no assured means of subsistence or societal support.
    3. Widows or terminally ill persons or disabled persons or persons aged 60 years or more or single women or single men with no family or societal support or assured means of subsistence.
    4. All primitive tribal households.
    5. Leprosy Affected persons, HIV Positive patients / families, families of deceased due to starvation and families threatened by Starvation Deaths, Urban and Rural Homeless people and beggars also in addition to those covered by the AAY eligibility as per the GOI guidelines as stated above.
  2. The priority households: In accordance with such guidelines including Exclusion and Inclusion Criteria notified by the state government :
    1. The Annual family Income ceiling for issue of Food Security Cards Rs. 1.50 Lakhs and below in Rural Areas and Rs.2.00 Lakhs and below in Urban Areas.
    2. The land ceiling limit is 3.50 Acres and below for wet land and 7.5 Acres and below for dry land. The mere possession of land shall not alone be the criteria for deciding the eligibility to Food Security Cards. The income on the land prescribed above shall also be taken into consideration. If the income from the land is less than the income ceiling prescribed above, the family shall be entitled for Food Security Card.

District Grievance Redressal Officer

  1. The District Rural Development Officer of the district shall be the District Grievance Redressal Officer as designated by the State Government.
  2. The District Grievance Redressal Officer shall, on receipt of complaint either in writing or personally or through Helpline Call Centre Toll Free No.1967, cause verification of the complaint received and address the concerned to rectify the instance.
  3. The State Government may, also wherever consider necessary take a decision to appoint a full time District Grievance Redressal Officer keeping in view the relevant provision of the National Food Security Act, 2013 [No.20 of 2013].
  4. District Grievance Redressal Officer shall have all the powers of a Civil Court while trying a suit under the Code of Civil Procedure, 1908, (Act V of 1908) and in particular, in respect of the following matters namely;-
  5. Summoning and enforcing the attendance of any person and examining him on oath.
  6. Discovery and production of any document.
  7. receiving evidence on affidavits;
  8. Requisitioning any public record or copy thereof from any court or office ; and
  9. Issuing commissions for the examination of witnesses or documents.

State Food Commission

  1. The State Food commission constituted in accordance with the provisions of section 16(1) and (2) of the Act for the purpose of monitoring and review of implementation of the Act.
  2. The State Commission shall consist of:
    1. A Chairperson;
    2. five other Members and
    3. Member Secretary:
  3. The State Food Commission shall undertake the following functions under section 16(6) of the Act, namely:
    1. Monitor and evaluate the implementation of the Act.
  • Either suo motu or on receipt of complaint inquire into violations of entitlements provided under Chapter II:
  1. Give advice to the State Government on effective implementation of the Act;
  • Give advice to the State Government, their agencies, autonomous bodies as well as non-governmental organizations involved in delivery of relevant services, for the effective implementation of food and nutrition related schemes, to enable individuals to fully access their entitlements specified in the Act;
  1. Hear appeals against orders of the District Grievance Redressal Officer;
  2. Prepare annual reports which shall be laid before the State Legislature by the State Government.
  1. State Government shall make available to the Commission adequate staff for proper discharge of its functions under section 16 of the Act.
  2. Meetings of the Commission shall be convened by the Member Secretary, on the direction of the Chairperson, as per the requirement of work, but atleast once in six months. The Commission shall formulate its own procedures for holding meetings.
    1. The Commission shall meet formally at least once in a month in its headquarters or at its offices in other places or at such other places decided as per the need and importance of implementation of the Act in those places.
    2. The quorum for the meeting of the Commission shall be four members. Provided that for a meeting of the Commission to review any previous decision taken by the Commission or for consideration of any issue which could not be decided on account of equality of votes in favour of and against the resolution proposed, the quorum for the meeting shall be all members being personally present
    3. The Chairperson of the Commission may instruct the MemberSecretary to call a meeting of the commission to be held at such time and at such place as the Chairperson may direct. In addition, any member of the Commission may request for a meeting of the Commission at any time by sending a notice in writing to the other members and with a copy to the Member Secretary. The notice of all meetings shall be given to the members in writing.
    4. The Commission shall be entitled to decide urgent matters by circulation of the paper to all the members.
    5. In case of a difference of opinion among the members of the Commission, the opinion of the majority shall prevail and the opinion of the commission shall be expressed in terms of the views of the majority. Each member of the Commission shall have one vote only. The Chairman shall have no casting or second vote.
    6. All decisions, directions and orders of the Commission shall be in writing and shall be supported by reasons. The decisions, directions and orders of the Commission shall be available for inspection by any person. Copies of the same shall be made available in the website of the Commission and as in a manner as the Commission may specify.
    7. When the Chairperson of the Commission is unable to discharge the functions owing to absence, illness or any other cause, the next senior member of the Commission shall discharge the functions of the Chairperson, until the day on which the Chairperson assumes the charge of his functions.
    8. The Member Secretary shall be the Chief Executive Officer of the Commission and shall exercise such powers and discharge such functions, as delegated by the Commission.
  3. The Chairperson or any Member may, by notice in writing under his/her hand addressed to the Governor of the State, resign from the office.
  4. The State government shall ensure that all the vacancies are filled and the commission is constituted fully with all the seven members as provided in section 16(2) of the Act, i.e One Chairperson, One member secretary and five other members. On account of any vacancy arising out of either resignation or termination or retirement of any member, the government shall fill the vacancy within a period of not more than three months from the date of arising of the vacancy, ensuring due representation of women, SC and ST members not less than stipulated in the Act.
  5. The Headquarters of the Commission shall be at Hyderabad, as the State Government may, by notification in the Official Gazette, specify and the Commission may, with the previous sanction of the State Government, establish offices at other places in the State.
  6. The Commission shall be provided, by the State Government, with all the required physical infrastructure and office amenities and equipment for carrying out its functions smoothly, like conduct of meetings and hearing appeals, receiving and processing complaints and reports, preparation of reports, undertaking any research and impact studies etc.,
  7. The State Government shall also make available financial support from the Government of India towards meeting the expenses of the Commission.
  8. The salaries and other allowances payable to the members and the administrative expenses, including salaries, allowances and pensions payable to or in respect of the officers and other employees of the Commission, shall be charged to the Consolidated fund of the State.
  9. The Commission shall have the following powers, in addition to the powers provided in section 20 of the Act, for performing its functions.
  10. Subject to the provisions of the Act and the rules thereunder, the Commission shall have the power to lay down its own procedure.
  11. To hear appeal over the decisions of the District Grievance Redressal Officers. The appeal shall lie within 30 days from the date on which the decision should have been made by or was actually received from the office of DGRO.
  12. While making a decision on the appeal or the complaint, the State Food Commission has the power to require the DGRO or any officer responsible for providing any entitlement under the Act to comply with the Provisions of the Food Security Act –
    1. Issue of ration cards or eligibility cards upon satisfying the eligibility criteria.
    2. Right to receive food grains at subsidized prices by persons belonging to eligible households under TPDS or ANTYODAYA ANNA YOJANA.
  • Nutritional support to pregnant women and lactating mothers.
  1. Nutritional support to Children of six months to 14 years of age, by providing appro priate meal free of charge , through local anganwadi and schools.
  2. In the case of Children, up to class VIII or within the age group of six to fourteen years, one mid-day meal shall be provided, free of charge, every day, except on school holidays in all schools run by local bodies /govt / govt aided schools.
  3. Prevention and management of Child malnutrition by providing meals, free of charge, to children who suffer from malnutrition, through local anganwadi.
  • Implementation of various schemes for realization of entitlements under the Act.
  • Payment of Food Security Allowance.
  1. To summon DGRO or any other official involved in the implementation of the Act, against which a grievance/complaint is received or whose presence is felt necessary for disposal of any matter before the commission.
  2. To necessitate the presence of the Department officials and implementation staff for any review meeting or training or any other related event.
  3. To direct any official to act in pursuance of objectives of the Act or to perform any functions necessitated to implement the provisions of the Act.
  4. To decide on the appeals and complaints received and direct the appropriate authority to act accordingly.
  5. To award penalties as provided in the Rules for default or breach of provisions of the Act as decided by the Commission.
  6. To visit and inspect any stock and delivery point, fair price shop, School, Anganwadi, local authority, office of DGRO or any other office performing designated functions related to the implementation of the Act.
  7. To commission any studies or enquiries in pursuit of better understanding of the implementation, impacts of the Act and for necessary improvements in the implementation processes.
  8. All orders and decisions of the Commission shall be authenticated by the Member-Secretary or any other officer of the Commission duly authorized by it on its behalf.
  9. Any complainant may approach State Food Commission by him/her self directly, in matters relating to distribution of entitled food grains or meals or other cash entitlements or Food Security Allowance as per the Act, in case the complaint is not redressed by the orders passed by the District Grievance Redressal Officer.
  10. If the State Food Commission has passed any strictures against the nodal officer / DGRO, they shall be communicated to their HOD’s on record for necessary action.
  11. Under section 20(2) of the Act, the State Food Commission shall have the power to forward any case to a Magistrate having jurisdiction to try the same and the Magistrate to whom any such case is forwarded shall proceed to hear the complaint against the accused as if the case has been forwarded to him under Section 346 of the Code of Criminal Procedure, 1973.
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